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  • WordNet 3.6
    • n viola a bowed stringed instrument slightly larger than a violin, tuned a fifth lower
    • n Viola large genus of flowering herbs of temperate regions
    • n viola any of the numerous plants of the genus Viola
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Viola (Bot) A genus of polypetalous herbaceous plants, including all kinds of violets.
    • n Viola (Mus) An instrument in form and use resembling the violin, but larger, and a fifth lower in compass.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n viola Same as viol.
    • n viola Specifically,in modern usage, the large violin, properly the alto violin, though generally called the tenor, in size about one seventh larger than the violin It is provided with four strings tuned in fifths, thus: A, D, G, and C (next below middle C), the two lower strings being wound with silver wire. The viola was probably the first member of the modern string quartet to be developed. Its tone is not so brilliant or varied as that of the violin, though susceptible of a peculiar pathetic quality under the hand of a good player, while in concerted music it is highly elfective. Music for the viola is usually written in the alto clef. Also called alto, tenor, bratsche, quint, and taille.
    • n viola In organ-building, a stop with metal pipes of narrow scale and ears on the sides of the mouths, giving tones of a penetrating, string-like quality.
    • n viola A genus of plants, type of the order Violarieæ and tribe Violeæ, including the pansies and violets. It is characterized by flowers with nearly equal sepals, these and the lower petal both prolonged at the base, the latter into a spur or sac, and by an ovoid or globose three-valved capsule with roundish seeds. Over 250 species have been enumerated, perhaps to be reduced to 150). They are herbs or undershrubs with alternate leaves, persistent stipules, and axillary peduncles. The north temperate species are typically, as in V. odorata, delicate plants of moist shady banks, with rounded cremite leaves on long angular stalks, solitary nodding violet-colored flowers, five orange-yellow anthers forming a central cone, and ovate capsules which open elastically into three boat-like persistent horizontal valves. The stipules are usually conspicuous, often large and leaf-like, in V. tricolor, the pansy, deeply pinnatifid and often larger than the leaves. (see first cut under leaf.) The leaves are of various forms, as cordate, arrow-shaped, lanceolate, rotundate, pedate, etc. The peduncles often bear two flowers, as in V. biflora, the twin-flowered violet, a saxicole species with brilliant golden-yellow flowers, found from the Alps to Cashmere and in the Rocky Mountains. The petals are colored, most often in shades of bluish-purple, white, or yellow, frequently penciled with dark-blue or purple lines. In some species they are of several colors, as in V. pedata, var. bicolor, the pansy-violet, or velvet violet, and in V. tricolor, which in its wild state, the heart's-ease, combines purple, yellow, and blue. Many species are dimorphous in their flowers, producing through summer minute apetalous ones which are more fertile and are self-fertilized, a fact first observed by Linnæus in the small mountain species V. mirabilis. In some, as V. Chamissoniana, the common Hawaiian violet, the later flowers, though minute, are well developed and petal-bearing. There are 22 species in Canada and over 30 in the United States, of which 17, besides 2 or 3 introduced, occur in the Northeastern States, and 16 in the Southern, where they diminish southward, only 4 extending into Texas. The native American species are distinguished into two groups, the stemless violets, chiefly eastern or central, as V. palmata, in which the long-stalked leaves are clustered at the top of a thick fleshy rhizome, which also bears the numerous distinct leafless scapes; and the leafy-stemmed species, as V. canina and V. striata, with spreading or somewhat erect stems bearing numerous leaves, usually on shorter petioles (see cut under violet). Several species produce long runners, as V. blanda, the sweet white violet; V. Canadensis, the largest, reaches sometimes 2 feet high; and V. pedata, the largest-flowered, has the flowers sometimes nearly 2 inches across. The 13 Californian species arc chiefly leafy-stemmed, showy, quite local, and peculiar in their yellow flowers with purple veins and brown backs: V. pedunculata, the common species, grows in clustered colonies, with flowers often an inch and a half across; V. ocellata of the Mendocino forests is remarkable for its purple spots. V. Langsdorffii is abundant on the Aleutian Islands, and the genus extends north to Kotzebue Sound. The British species are 6, of which V. odorata, also occurring from central Europe to Sweden, Siberia, and Cashmere, is the sweet or English violet, often doubled, and called tea-violet in cultivation; and V. canina is the dog- or hedgeviolet, without odor, but graceful in form, imparting much of the beauty of spring to English mountain districts. There are 56 species in Europe, over 20 in China, of which V. Patrinii is the most common, and 11 in the mountains of India. In the southern hemisphere, where the species are usually shrubby, there are over 30 in the mountains of South America, elsewhere few, 4 in Australia, of which the chief is V. hederacea, 2 in New Zealand, and 2 in Cape Colony. Five peculiar species occur in the Hawaiian Islands, of which V. robusta produces a woody stem sometimes 5 feet high, and V. helioscopia a large snow-white waxy flower sometimes 2 inches across. A few somewhat shrubby species occur northward, as V. arborescens. the tree-violet. V. scandens of Peru is a climbing and V. arguta a twining shrub: V. decumbens of Cape Colony, a much-branched procumbent shrub; V. filicaulis of New Zealand, a smooth, slender mountain-creeper. The pansy and other species are of some medicinal use. For V. tricolor, see pansy and heart's-ease (its small form is known in the United States as Johnny-jump-up and lady's-delight). For other species, see violet.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • ns Viola (vē-ō′la, or vī′ō-la) a larger description of violin having four strings tuned in fifths, to which the part between the second violin and bass is generally assigned—also called Alto viola or Tenor violin
    • ***


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L., a violet. See Violet
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. viole—Low L. vidula, from L. vitulāri, to skip like a calf, to make merry—L. vitulus, a calf.


In literature:

"Helen and Arthur" by Caroline Lee Hentz
Opus 21 is a Quartette for violin, viola, 'cello, and piano.
"Contemporary American Composers" by Rupert Hughes
Helen made a noble Duke, and Catherine an enchanting Viola.
"Judy of York Hill" by Ethel Hume Patterson Bennett
He would not beg; something held him back, and the thought of Viola would not let him steal.
"Happy Days for Boys and Girls" by Various
"The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony (Volume 2 of 2)" by Ida Husted Harper
Rack scuds across the moon's wan face (violas and second violins).
"The So-called Human Race" by Bert Leston Taylor
Mrs. Viola Ruffner, the wife of General Ruffner, was a "Yankee" woman from Vermont.
"The Upward Path" by Various
While the Grand Duke is reading it I will escape with Viola.
"Olla Podrida" by Frederick Marryat
Three species of Viola are shrubs from three to five feet high.
"Island Life" by Alfred Russel Wallace
In one sense of the term, Viola Allen never began at all.
"The Scrap Book, Volume 1, No. 3" by Various
John Berrisford was in his best form and kept up a lively duel with Viola Cartmell.
"Years of Plenty" by Ivor Brown
Why had he spoken of Viola?
"The Truth About Tristrem Varick" by Edgar Saltus
Lizette was very proud of Viola, and so, indeed, was Amasa, who was fourteen now, but whose name was not on the programme at all.
"Harper's Round Table, October 15, 1895" by Various
She picked four of her little violas, and pinned them into his coat.
"Through the Postern Gate" by Florence L. Barclay
Viola and I were just down to the post-office and when the crowd gathered of course, we had to see what was going on.
"Dorothy Dale at Glenwood School" by Margaret Penrose
I met in the company there Mr. Leslie Allen (the father of Miss Viola Allen), Mr. Dan Maginnis (the Boston comedian), and Mr. John W. Norton.
"Life on the Stage" by Clara Morris
The violoncello bow is a little shorter than those used for violin and viola, and the head and nut are deeper.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 3" by Various
Viola, where's your mother?
"One-Act Plays" by Various
I'm sure I look older than either Viola or Dorrie.
"The Jolliest Term on Record" by Angela Brazil
Originally played with great success by Viola Allen.
"The Girl From Tim's Place" by Charles Clark Munn

In poetry:

Smile, sweet baby, smile,
For you will have weeping-while;
Native in your Heaven is smile, -
But your weeping, Viola?
"The Making Of Viola" by Francis Thompson
Whence your smiles we know, but ah?
Whence your weeping, Viola? -
Our first gift to you is a
Gift of tears, my Viola!
"The Making Of Viola" by Francis Thompson

In news:

Brittany Viola is representing Team USA in the 10-meter platform competition in London this Wednesday and Thursday.
Viola was a collegiate champion at the University of Miami, where she still trains.
Viola-Darling Pitching Duel in 1981 Has Not Been Forgotten.
Thelma "Shorty" Morse, 81, of Aledo, formerly of Viola, died Tuesday, Oct 30, 2012 at Mercer County Nursing Home in Aledo.
With The Help's Viola Davis & Octavia Spencer up for Oscars at the 84th Academy.
Delegate Viola O Baskerville wants to inspire a new age of politics.
Reuben Payne, viola, 16 from Delaware, OH.
Meryl, Viola, and The Artist may be locks, but who else will get to compete for a buff gold man.
As Oscar nominations were announced, The Help actresses Viola Davis and Octavia Spencer were acknowleged for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, respectively.
Viola " Peg " Baker, 97, formerly of Stockton, died Sun.
FROM TOP LEFT, Clockwise: Actress Viola Davis, educator Elaine Foster Perry, Brown University President Ruth J Simmons and Providence Performing Arts Center President J.L.
Strong storm damages homes in Viola, Arkansas.
The Viola Plummer Saga Continues.
She was born to Rulon R and Polly Viola Rhoghaar Davis on June 3, 1931, in Ogden, UT.
Shay Viola serves up a shot against Wrenshall Thursday.

In science:

The dynamics of decoherence in continuous atom-optical QND measurements has been studied by Onofrio and Viola .
Phase Diffusion in Quantum Dissipative Systems
Fla jolet, P., Poblete, P. and Viola, A. (1997).
Conditional large and moderate deviations for sums of discrete random variables. Combinatoric applications
Viola, Quantum pseudo-randomness from cluster-state quantum computation, Phys.
Random circuits by measurements on weighted graph states
A third commonly used ob ject recognition method is the cascade of weak classifiers proposed by Viola and Jones .
Evaluation of Three Vision Based Object Perception Methods for a Mobile Robot
Since the publication of the original work by Viola and Jones, many improvements to the method have appeared, for example to address the case of multi-view ob ject recognition [25, 26].
Evaluation of Three Vision Based Object Perception Methods for a Mobile Robot
With so few training data, the Viola and Jones classifier is able to find only some instances for ob jects of 11 out of the 29 categories.
Evaluation of Three Vision Based Object Perception Methods for a Mobile Robot
Table 11: Recall and precision values for each ob ject category using the Viola & Jones ob ject detector.
Evaluation of Three Vision Based Object Perception Methods for a Mobile Robot
Despite the use of very simple image features, the Viola and Jones Cascade of classifiers attains a good level of precision and recall for most of the ob jects in a very low runtime.
Evaluation of Three Vision Based Object Perception Methods for a Mobile Robot
Furthermore, some theoretically “easy” ob jects, such as the posters, proved to be troublesome to the Viola and Jones method.
Evaluation of Three Vision Based Object Perception Methods for a Mobile Robot
For the case of the Viola and Jones cascade of weak classifiers the used implementation directly offers a thoroughly evaluated selection of parameters, and the main variable we have evaluated is the training set size.
Evaluation of Three Vision Based Object Perception Methods for a Mobile Robot
Viola, “Fast multi-view face detection,” in IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Citeseer, 2003.
Evaluation of Three Vision Based Object Perception Methods for a Mobile Robot
Viola 2010 Convergence rates for arbitrary statistical moments of random quantum circuits Phys.
Subsystem dynamics under random Hamiltonian evolution
We are grateful to Paolo Ricci for useful suggestions on the computer codes, and to Lorenza Viola for a critical reading of the manuscript.
Thermalization in open classical systems with finite heat baths
Second, it improves the parameters of an XOR lemma for polynomials given by Viola and Wigderson [VW07].
Optimal Testing of Reed-Muller Codes
They could only prove their result under the inverse conjecture for the Gowers norm, but later Lovett [Lov09] and Viola [Vio09] used related ideas to prove an unconditional result.
Optimal Testing of Reed-Muller Codes