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temperature

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n temperature the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)
    • n temperature the somatic sensation of cold or heat
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The temperature of milk when it is coming out of a cow is about 36 degrees celsius
    • Temperature (Physics) Condition with respect to heat or cold, especially as indicated by the sensation produced, or by the thermometer or pyrometer; degree of heat or cold; as, the temperature of the air; high temperature; low temperature; temperature of freezing or of boiling.
    • Temperature Constitution; state; degree of any quality. "The best composition and temperature is, to have openness in fame and opinion, secrecy in habit, dissimulation in seasonable use, and a power to feign, if there be no remedy.""Memory depends upon the consistence and the temperature of the brain."
    • Temperature Freedom from passion; moderation. "In that proud port, which her so goodly graceth,
      Most goodly temperature you may descry."
    • Temperature Mixture; compound. "Made a temperature of brass and iron together."
    • Temperature (Physiol. & Med) The degree of heat of the body of a living being, esp. of the human body; also Colloq, loosely, the excess of this over the normal (of the human body 98°-99.5° F., in the mouth of an adult about 98.4°).
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The average temperature on Earth is 15 degrees celcius.
    • n temperature In phenology, the temperature below which the germination of the seed and the growth of the plant do not take place.
    • n temperature Mixture, or that which is produced by mixture; a compound.
    • n temperature Constitution; state; temperament.
    • n temperature Moderation; freedom from passions or excesses.
    • n temperature Temper, as of metals.
    • n temperature Temperateness; mildness.
    • n temperature The state of a substance with regard to sensible heat; the degree or intensity of the sensible heat of a body. Primarily the conception of temperature is based on the different sensations produced by bodies when termed hot, warm, or cold, the hotter body being said to have the higher temperature. Again two bodies are said to have the same temperature when, by being placed in contact, neither is heated or cooled by the other. But these conceptions are relative. The absolute physical condition implied by temperature depends upon the nature of heat. Heat being considered to be molecular motion, temperature (or the degree of heat) is the expression of the velocity of the motion. The absolute scale of temperature recognizes this property, and preserves it in numerical measures which are proportional to the square of the corresponding molecular velocities. Thus temperature has the same dimensions as heat. The absolute zero of temperature is the point at which molecular motion ceases and all heat vanishes. This point is computed to be at—273° on the centigrade scale. Sir W. Thomson has shown that the changes in either volume or pressure of an ideal gas would give an absolute scale of temperature which would give true relative measures of absolute amounts of heat. In this system the temperature t is defined by the equation E = kt, in which E is the average kinetic energy per molecule of a perfect gas which has that temperature, and k a constant. This is called the thermodynamic definition of temperature. It should be noted that temperatures of actual masses of matter, when expressed on this scale, are true relative measures of the absolute amounts of heat which they contain so far as the specific heat of the bodies remains constant. In practice temperature is measured by the changes produced in bodies by heat, and thermometry is the instrumental art employed. Experiments show that the air- or gas-thermometer approximates most closely to the thermodynamic requirement that its indications shall bear a linear relation to successive increments of heat. In the next instance, the normal mercurial thermometer possesses this property to a high degree, and the small departures of its indications from the linear law have been made the subject of elaborate investigation. Other thermometers differ more or less widely in their indications from the foregoing, and it is important to note that without the thermodynamic conception the definition of temperature is dependent on the particular instrument or method employed for its measurement. After considering the thermodynamic scale and its absolute zero, it will be recognized that the system of numeration of the usual Fahrenheit and centigrade scales is entirely arbitrary. Numerical temperatures on these scales have only a relative significance, and cannot be made to serve in any absolute sense. See thermometry.
    • n temperature Specifically, the thermal element of weather or climate. If the whole surface of the earth were either land or water, and perfectly homogeneous, there would be the same temperature at every point on the same latitude; but in the case of an entire land surface the difference of temperature between the equator and the pole, and consequently the temperature gradient, would be much greater than in the case of an earth entirely covered by water. In the case of the actual earth with continents and oceans, the temperature gradients between the equator and the pole on the continents are somewhat as they would be in the case of an entire land surface, while on the ocean they are somewhat as on an entire water surface, and consequently the temperature gradients on the former are greater than on the latter; hence there are differences of temperature on the same latitude in different longitudes, and temperature gradients arise between regions of land and regions of water. As a result of these diversifying conditions, the mean sea-level temperature can be expressed as a function of latitude and longitude only by empirical methods, and by utilizing a large mass of observed data. The diminution of temperature with altitude is a further variation that can often be independently treated.
    • n temperature In physiology and pathology, the degree of heat of a living body, especially of the human body. It is usually taken, clinically, in the axilla, under the tongue, or in the rectum.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: A butterfly has to have a body temperature greater than 86 degrees to be able to fly
    • n Temperature constitution: proportion: degree of any quality, esp. of heat or cold in weather or climate: the thermal condition of a body which determines the interchange of heat between it and other bodies: state of a living body with respect to sensible heat
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. température, L. temperatura, due measure, proportion, temper, temperament

Usage

In literature:

It is celebrated for its hot mineral springs, which vary in temperature from 135 deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
When its temperature has fallen to 95 deg.
"The Bacillus of Long Life" by Loudon Douglas
The water has a temperature of about 76 deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 5" by Various
C. as the natural zero of temperature.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 6" by Various
At 5.45 A.M. the following day the remaining young bird had succumbed, the temperature then being 49 deg.
"Territory in Bird Life" by H. Eliot Howard
The temperature of the fat varies slightly with the nature of things to be fried.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 3" by Various
An increase in time of exposure lowers the temperature point at which death occurs.
"Outlines of dairy bacteriology" by H. L. Russell
And going south along the coast, we find the mean temperature of San Diego 6 deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1" by Various
Several of our members have high temperatures to-day; they have been isolated.
"My Diary in Serbia: April 1, 1915-Nov. 1, 1915" by Monica M. Stanley
The summers are warm, with an average temperature of 65 deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 2" by Various
It appears from the experiments of Brunner and of Wolf on the ascent of water in tubes that at the temperature t deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 3" by Various
Water boils at a temperature of 100 deg.
"Dietetics for Nurses" by Fairfax T. Proudfit
But if a temperature is perceptibly lowered another phenomenon will manifest itself.
"Nature's Miracles, Volume 1" by Elisha Gray
The temperature of the air varied in the course of the day from 62 degrees to 41 degrees.
"Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea" by John Franklin
They therefore require very different cultural conditions, especially in the matter of temperature.
"Orchids" by James O'Brien
The mean temperature at Kumasi is 76 deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 7" by Various
The human system bears changes of temperature of the air much better than changes of the temperature of water.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 4" by Various
The weather is sensibly changing in temperature.
"Memoirs of Service Afloat, During the War Between the States" by Raphael Semmes
The average temperature in January is 38 deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 3" by Various
The climate of Algeria has greater extremes of temperature than Morocco.
"The World and Its People: Book VII" by Anna B. Badlam
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In poetry:

do I repudiate. But foes I sniff!
My nose in all directions! I be so brave
I creep into an Arctic cave
for the rectal temperature of the biggest bear,
hibernating—in my left hand sugar.
I totter to the lip of the cliff.
"Dream Song 120: Foes I sniff, when I have less to shout" by John Berryman

In news:

My friend Hoang lives in Barrow, Alaska and he recently sent me this video taken earlier in August when their temperature hit a sweltering 64 degrees.
The Arctic Ocean 's ice cover is shrinking at a record pace this year after higher-than-average temperatures hastened the annual break-up of the sea ice.
A welcome cold front is moving through the area today, bringing showers and temperatures in the - 6:48 am.
Description A digital thermometer offers the quickest and most accurate way to take your child's temperature.
And all the more so because it was sauteed in subfreezing temperatures and served up in a Sierra cup, a multipurpose backpacker 's utensil.
At noon, the temperature in Central Park was a toasty 58 degrees.
Soaring temperatures are creating havoc on golf courses all across the state, but Brier Creek Country Club is fighting back.
High temperatures, as expected, yesterday were no better than the lower 70s.
Broiling temperatures in the 90s and beyond grip.
125 degrees internal temperature for medium rare.
Brutally Frigid Temperatures Are Here.
In fact, with many of these insects, the song changes with the temperature.
As temperatures decrease, energy requirements of the calf start to increase.
Cooler temperatures raise fire safety concerns.
An 11 day stretch of below average temperatures will end today in Cincinnati as high temperatures soar to near 70° this afternoon.
***

In science:

The free energy barriers separating valleys at temperature T ′ = T − ∆T are higher than those at the temperature T and corresponding amount of time t needed to occupy the respective part of the phase space at temperature T is smaller than in the case of temperature T ′ .
Random walk on p-$adics in glassy systems
Also the gapless version of the dSC with an additional gapless mode is also examined for finite temperature and for zero temperature ; the gapless dSC is shown to be always a metastable at zero temperature, while it may exist stably for nonzero temperature.
Extensive study of phase diagram for charge neutral homogeneous quark matter affected by dynamical chiral condensation -- unified picture for thermal unpairing transitions from weak to strong coupling --
We emphasize that our approach is different from the Finite-Temperature Lanczos method developed by Jaklic and Prelovsek11,12, which is built as a tool to use ED at any temperature, but it is in principle exact only at T = 0 and in the large temperature limit.
Solving Dynamical Mean-Field Theory at very low temperature using Lanczos Exact Diagonalization
At temperatures much lower than Tc, a strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant is not expected, for example, the static dielectric constant of LiNbO3 (Tc= 1450 K) over the temperature range 0K-300K.
Ferroelectricity in the Dion-Jacobson CsBiNb$_2$O$_7$ from first principles
First, by adapting familiar high temperature expansion techniques we can more or less rigorously rule out the possibility that such a transition is accompanied by a thermodynamic signature both at infinite temperature and by continuity at any finite temperature .
Localization of interacting fermions at high temperature
The experiment was repeated at higher temperatures and found to exhibit a similar hydrodynamic behavior even at temperatures of the order of the Fermi temperature, where the system can not be superfluid.
Theory of ultracold Fermi gases
The droplet model introduce the concept of overlap length (L∆ T ), which determine the maximum length scale at which the spin correlation at two different temperatures (the temperatures being less than spin glass transition temperature) are the same.
Changeover from Glassy ferromagnetism of the orbital domain state to long range ferromagnetic ordering in La{_{0.9}}Sr_{0.1}MnO{_3}
One might expect that for a randomly fluctuating temperature of the E, the system S would be thermalized at asymptotic temperature equalling the average of the chain temperature.
Random repeated interaction quantum systems
Although the calculations by Schmalian et al.16) correspond to finite temperatures, variation of n − nl as function of temperature suggests that the observed value for n − nl at the lowest temperature considered (that is T = 63 K) is not attributable to T being non-vanishing (see Sec. 5.2.1 and appendix C).
On the Luttinger theorem concerning number of particles in the ground states of systems of interacting fermions
Moreover the effect of the Polyakov loop is not only to stabilize the 2SC phase against the increase of temperature as in ms = 0 case, but also to suppress the pairing at low temperature making two separated islands of 2SC in temperature.
Enforced neutrality and color-flavor unlocking in the three-flavor Polyakov-loop NJL model
However, more recent experiments25 have extended AMRO to temperatures as high as 110 K (∼ 0.04 T /TF ) where finite temperature effects should be more relevant – we show below that finite temperature corrections to AMRO can be quantitatively important at these temperatures.
Temperature Dependence of Interlayer Magnetoresistance in Anisotropic Layered Metals
Our results indicate that the inferred scattering rates in Ref. 9 are robust to finite temperature corrections, but that finite temperature corrections will be required in fits to AMRO at higher temperatures.
Temperature Dependence of Interlayer Magnetoresistance in Anisotropic Layered Metals
The critical temperature obtained from the FSS of the χt corresponds to the onset temperature of the SF density because the correlation length extends over the entire system at the temperature.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for the Bose-Hubbard model with random chemical potential; localized Bose-Einstein condensation without superfluidity
Indeed, at high temperatures, in the so-called molten phase, all possible folds are equally probable; and one expects that lowering the temperature, at the transition only a subset remains relevant, whereas at zero temperature a single configuration dominates.
Field Theory of the RNA Freezing Transition
Since the stabilizing effects of conduction decline with temperature, the NCC/CC bimodality should be a function of temperature, being the most sharply defined for high temperature clusters, and vanishing in galaxy groups.
Could AGN Outbursts Transform Cool Core Clusters?
***