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  • WordNet 3.6
    • n refraction the amount by which a propagating wave is bent
    • n refraction the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The telescope at the Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton, in California, also serves as a tomb. The 36-inch refracting telescope is mounted on a pillar that contains the remains of Jack Lick, who died in 1876. Lick was a wealthy financier and philanthropist who financed the construction of the observatory that bears his name.
    • Refraction The act of refracting, or the state of being refracted.
    • Refraction (Astron) The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; -- hence distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction.
    • Refraction The change in the direction of ray of light, heat, or the like, when it enters obliquely a medium of a different density from that through which it has previously moved. "Refraction out of the rarer medium into the denser, is made towards the perpendicular."
    • Refraction (Astron) The correction which is to be deducted from the apparent altitude of a heavenly body on account of atmospheric refraction, in order to obtain the true altitude.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n refraction The act of refracting, or the state of being refracted: almost exclusively restricted to physics, and applied to a deflection or change of direction of rays, as of light, heat, or sound, which are obliquely incident upon and pass through a smooth surface bounding two media not homogeneous, as air and water, or of rays which traverse a medium the density of which is not uniform, as the atmosphere. It is found that, when passing into a denser isotropic medium, the ray is refracted toward the perpendicular to the surface, and bent away from it when passing into one less dense;
    • n refraction In logic, the relation of the Theophrastian moods to the direct moods of the first figure.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Refraction the act of refracting: the change in the direction of a ray of light, heat, &c., when it enters a different medium
    • ***


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. réfraction,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. refringĕre, refractumre-, back, frangĕre, to break.


In literature:

Does refraction account for all this?
"The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce" by Ambrose Bierce
It was a large room, with windows on three sides, through which the light poured in to find itself refracted by a hundred lustrous surfaces.
"The Street Called Straight" by Basil King
These glittered almost to the ground and refracted the sunshine in their prisms.
"Children of the Mist" by Eden Phillpotts
It is always partial and many-colored, refracted as it is through the prisms of human passion and prejudice.
"William Lloyd Garrison" by Archibald H. Grimke
That told by the Australians may be regarded with suspicion, as a refraction from a careless hearing of the narrative in Genesis.
"Modern Mythology" by Andrew Lang
The light, too, is refracted, and the great background of life is not seen quite truly.
"Lewis Rand" by Mary Johnston
On the Figures of transparent bodies which serve for Refraction and for Reflexion.
"Treatise on Light" by Christiaan Huygens
It reveals the defects in the accommodation, and serves for the quick determination of refraction.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 620, November 19,1887" by Various
Remember the great refraction of the solar rays that must be produced by the Earth's atmosphere.
"All Around the Moon" by Jules Verne
It is this beautiful band of seven colors obtained by the refraction of a ray of light through the prism.
"A Catechism of Familiar Things; Their History, and the Events Which Led to Their Discovery" by Benziger Brothers
Refraction and optical illusion, 73.
"Illusions" by James Sully
They may find something to reflect it, or they can try refraction.
"Operation Terror" by William Fitzgerald Jenkins
In his optical investigations he established the law of refraction of light.
"Library of the World's Best Literature, Ancient and Modern — Volume 11" by Various
The formula for refraction which Ptolemy helped to shape, is geometrical in form.
"Progress and History" by Various
I rose before the sun, while all the east was glowing with his refracted light.
"With the World's Great Travellers, Volume 1" by Various
It was hard to tell what kind of a light it was, so great was the refraction of the water, but there was something there.
"The Golden Amazons of Venus" by John Murray Reynolds
The refraction spectra for different media also differ amongst themselves.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 5" by Various
It is used in the manufacture of glass of high refractive power.
"New, Old, and Forgotten Remedies: Papers by Many Writers" by Various
We have first, the twelve hours of natural light, then twelve hours of "refracted and reflected" light.
"The Works of Robert G. Ingersoll, Vol. 2 (of 12) Dresden Edition--Lectures" by Robert G. Ingersoll
Was it some cheat of refraction?
"North-Pole Voyages" by Zachariah Atwell Mudge

In poetry:

O light beheld as through refracting tears.
Here is the aura of that world
each of us has lost.
Here is the shadow of its joy.
"Monet's Waterlilies" by Robert Hayden
Her sledgy car, with sparkling frost-work bright,
O'er the pellucid ice her snow-birds drew,
And on her fleecy robe's refracted light
The full-blown rose's vermeil colours threw.
"The Complaint Of The Goddess Of The Glaciers To Doctor Darwin" by Helen Maria Williams
Yet 'mid these sun—confronting peaks,
The undesisting spirit seeks
To mount to loftier, rarer height.
Are what we see but toys of sense,
And we who see them but a lens
Refracting heavenly light?—
"Celestial Heights" by Alfred Austin
O little souls! as pure and white
And crystalline as rays of light
Direct from heaven, their source divine;
Refracted through the mist of years,
How red my setting sun appears,
How lurid looks this soul of mine!
"Weariness. (Birds Of Passage. Flight The Second)" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
The moonlight lends her grace, but have a care:
Behind her waits the fairy Melusine.
The sun those beams refract died years ago.
The moat has a romantic air
But it is choked with nettles and obscene
And phallic fungi rot there as they grow.
"Beware of Ruins" by A D Hope

In news:

Refractive surgery is a general term for surgical procedures that can improve or correct your eye's focus by permanently changing the shape of the cornea.
Refractive Index vs Refraction of Light.
Refractive Index vs Optical Rotation.
Refractive index measurements perk up petrol profits.
Take a big overriding theme, shoot it through the prism of John Steinbeck's life and works, and refract it over several days in many different directions.
State-of-the-art refractive surgery uses wavefront correction.
Sun sneaks in, refracts off glass and starts cardboard display burning.
Refraction Arts' latest collaborative effort combines kung fu, rock and roll and, "very, very loosely," Hamlet.
During this time he stumbled across a glass ball in a Shanghai street market and set out making refraction photos for the rest of his travels.
In our practice, refractive surgery patients will have two separate visits to our office: a comprehensive medical eye exam and the LASIK consultation .
On "Underwater Sunshine (Or What We Did on Our Summer Vacation)," Counting Crows refract 15 tracks, bending a few favorite songs to create big, bright waves of sound.
Lip colour with large particle pearls reflect and refract light to mimic the brilliance of quartz and opal crystal.
The black basement of U Street Music Hall makes for a fine dance-music venue, but it's not an atmosphere where you'd expect to find Phil Elverum, whose refracted indie folk channels the green, brown, and blue hues of the Pacific Northwest.
US 6,528,142 B2 Yazaki Corporation has received a patent for an anti-reflective coating comprising a transparent substrate layer has a refractive index Ns.
In Saturn 's shadow, the southern hemisphere of Titan is lit by two sources: sunlight scattered through the planet's rings and refracted sunlight passing through the edge of Saturn 's atmosphere.

In science:

No circulation of the gas is foreseen, therefore reducing the risk of temperature changes affecting the gas density (and the refractive index).
The NA62 RICH detector
Refractive index maps can be computed from those measurements, and in the case of a sound wave, acoustic pressure can be determined.
Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse
Then an inverse Abel transformation is applied to recover the local index of refraction, and hence the sound pressure.
Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse
The phase φ is assumed to be related to the refractive index by a simple integration along the y -axis parallel to the beam direction in the sample (see Figure 2).
Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse
More precisely, for each pixel (x, z), one takes into account the difference δn(x, z, y ) between the perturbed index n(x, z, y ) seen by the signal beam at point (x, y, z) and the refractive index n0 of the unperturbed fluid seen by the reference beam on its parallel path.
Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse
Conversely radial refractive index profiles can be retrieved from phase maps via an inverse Abel tranform.
Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse
More precisely the RamanNath condition should be fulfilled, i.e. deviation of a light beam from a straight line over the sample diameter D due to the refractive index gradient should be less than the optical resolution δx.
Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse
Reflection coefficient R is given by the Fresnel formula: nf + (nw + δnw ) #2 R = " nf − (nw + δnw ) where nf, nw are the optical fiber and water refractive indices.
Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse
Water refractive index modulations δnw due to sound waves are retrieved from those of R, after averaging over typically 100 bursts.
Time-resolved quantitative multiphase interferometric imaging of a highly focused ultrasound pulse
The tube’s complex index of refraction m is assumed to satisfy |m| ˜α, |m| ˜β ≪ 1 here.
Polarized light emission from individual incandescent carbon nanotubes
Høg E. 1968, Refraction Anomalies: The mean power spectrum of star image motion.
Astrometry during the past 2000 years
No specific optical coupling was necessary due to the good matching of indexes of refraction of the protective epoxy layer of the SiPM and the fiber core material.
A Tracking Fiber Detector based on Silicon Photomultipliers for the Kaos Spectrometer
In a perfect fiber, the two transverse components of the electric field are degenerate in the sense that they propagate with the same characteristics: group velocity, chromatic dispersion, refractive indices (n1 = n2 ), etc.
A diffusion approximation theorem for a nonlinear PDE with application to random birefringent optical fibers
The difference of velocity of the two modes, due to random change of the birefringence (and so of the refractive indices), induces coupling between the two polarized modes and pulse spreading: PMD is one of the limiting factors of high bit rate transmission.
A diffusion approximation theorem for a nonlinear PDE with application to random birefringent optical fibers
D is the donor luminescence quantum yield, and n is the effective index of refraction.
Measurement of the separation dependence of resonant energy transfer between CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystallite quantum dots