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logic

Definitions

  • One of the intriguing mysteries of Jamestown is how the left leg and left half of a human pelvis came to be thrown with other refuse into a well behind the row house. The logical inference is that a rebel or criminal had been hanged, drawn, and quartered
    One of the intriguing mysteries of Jamestown is how the left leg and left half of a human pelvis came to be thrown with other refuse into a well behind the row house. The logical inference is that a rebel or criminal had been hanged, drawn, and quartered
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n logic reasoned and reasonable judgment "it made a certain kind of logic"
    • n logic a system of reasoning
    • n logic the principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation "economic logic requires it","by the logic of war"
    • n logic the system of operations performed by a computer that underlies the machine's representation of logical operations
    • n logic the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Logic (Electronics, Computers) A function of an electrical circuit (called a gate) that mimics certain elementary binary logical operations on electrical signals, such as AND, OR, or NOT; as, a logic circuit; the arithmetic and logic unit.
    • Logic A treatise on logic; as, Mill's Logic .
    • Logic correct reasoning; as, I can't see any logic in his argument; also, sound judgment; as, the logic of surrender was uncontestable.
    • Logic The path of reasoning used in any specific argument; as, his logic was irrefutable.
    • Logic The science or art of exact reasoning, or of pure and formal thought, or of the laws according to which the processes of pure thinking should be conducted; the science of the formation and application of general notions; the science of generalization, judgment, classification, reasoning, and systematic arrangement; the science of correct reasoning. "Logic is the science of the laws of thought, as thought; that is, of the necessary conditions to which thought, considered in itself, is subject."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n logic The science of the distinction of true from false reasoning, with whatever is naturally treated in connection therewith. See the phrases below. The definition of logic has been much disputed, and many definitions of the word have been given. There was much discussion in ancient and medieval times of the questions whether logic was a mode of knowing, or an instrument of science, or an art, or a practical science, or a speculative science. There was also a great diversity of opinion as to the subject-matter of logic, some holding that it had to do with words, others that it treated of the ens rationis, or that which has its existence in thought, and still others that it related to argumentations or some instrument of knowing. In modern times, especially since Kant, the real divergence of conception has been very much greater, one party holding that the main business of logic consists in developing the true theory of the process of cognition, and a second that its chief work is to separate inferences into classes distinguished by their form, while a third maintains that the form and the matter of thought have to be evolved together.
    • n logic [Dialectic and organon are generally synonyms of logic, though they have been variously distinguished at different times.]
    • n logic Reasoning, or power of reasoning; ratiocination; argumentation; used absolutely, reason; sound sense.
    • n logic The science of the necessary rules of thought: also called scientific logic: opposed to natural logic .
    • n logic The logical doctrine applicable to natural things: opposed to the logic of faith, which is applicable to supernatural things (a distinction used in discussions on the Trinity).
    • n logic An anthropological science which treats of the rules of the natural use of the understanding.
    • n logic The logic of objective thought, or thought as it exists in the external world.
    • n logic The science which expounds the laws by which our scientific procedure should be governed, so far as these lie in the contents, materials, or objects about which our knowledge is conversant. Also called material logic.
    • logic Pertaining to God the Son as the Logos or Word of God.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Logic loj′ik the science and art of reasoning correctly: the science of the necessary laws of thought
    • ***

Quotations

  • Thomas H. Huxley
    Thomas%20H.%20Huxley
    “Logical consequences are the scarecrows of fools and the beacons of wise men.”
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes
    Oliver%20Wendell%20Holmes
    “A page of history is worth a pound of logic.”
  • Isidore Ducasse Lautreamont
    Isidore Ducasse Lautreamont
    “The great universal family of men is a utopia worthy of the most mediocre logic.”
  • Charles Caleb Colton
    Charles%20Caleb%20Colton
    “Life isn't like a book. Life isn't logical or sensible or orderly. Life is a mess most of the time. And theology must be lived in the midst of that mess.”
  • John Locke
    John%20Locke
    “Logic is the anatomy of thought.”
  • Ludwig Wittgenstein
    Ludwig%20Wittgenstein
    “The logic of the world is prior to all truth and falsehood.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. logike, F. logique, L. logica, logice, Gr. logikh`sc. te`chnh), fr. logiko`s belonging to speaking or reason, fr. lo`gos speech, reason, le`gein to say, speak. See Legend
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. logikē, from logos, speech.

Usage

In literature:

Supplicated the President not to risk a step which logically must turn wrong.
"Diary from March 4, 1861, to November 12, 1862" by Adam Gurowski
The devil and such logic had a charm for us once, but no more.
"The Book of Khalid" by Ameen Rihani
Ask the student "doing" prescribed logic to explain the value of the course.
"College Teaching" by Paul Klapper
Logical thinkers the world over have been led in consequence to ask: Are not women equally capable with men of self-government?
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume V"
A "just solution" is one that is logically correct.
"Medical Investigation in Seventeenth Century England" by Charles W. Bodemer
The logic of evolution destroys the doctrine of the =fall of man= and its result in total depravity.
"The Church, the Schools and Evolution" by J. E. (Judson Eber) Conant
Maccall does not see the utility of that very logic which compelled him to admit Spinoza's truth.
"Ancient and Modern Celebrated Freethinkers" by Charles Bradlaugh, A. Collins, and J. Watts
But given the evidence before you, and your own powers of thought, and your judgment is a logical necessity.
"Flowers of Freethought" by George W. Foote
It does not seem to me good morals, and it is certainly poor logic.
"Men, Women, and Gods" by Helen H. Gardener
We shall take them in their logical sequence for convenience of treatment.
"Monophysitism Past and Present" by A. A. Luce
Therefore (it is true Hazlittian logic) no woman cares for sentiment.
"Hours in a Library" by Leslie Stephen
It unites, in Teaching, considerations on Psychology as well as a Logical method.
"Pedagogics as a System" by Karl Rosenkranz
Logic is the theory of Proof, and everything provable can be exhibited as a proposition, propositions alone being objects of belief.
"Analysis of Mr. Mill's System of Logic" by William Stebbing
They have no logical connection with each other, either in arrangement or in the placing, to begin with.
"The Painter in Oil" by Daniel Burleigh Parkhurst
There are plenty of striking episodes, but logic is lacking, not only the logic of life, but the logic of the theatre.
"Ivory Apes and Peacocks" by James Huneker
I have again and again perceived his false logic, his weak metaphors, and his unsound expositions.
"Talkers" by John Bate
He is not a "logic-grinder," like Mill, whom he despised.
"German Problems and Personalities" by Charles Sarolea
Let the logic of the whole world go to the devil first!
"Villa Eden:" by Berthold Auerbach
Hence Frederick's logical gratitude and respect.
"H. R." by Edwin Lefevre
Not much need be said under this head, because whoever knows the common logic of the text-books knows the logic of Aristotle.
"A Critical History of Greek Philosophy" by W. T. Stace
***

In poetry:

Though called by many different names,
Each one professed the noblest aims;
Should all be right, 'twas logical
That I should give my vote to all!
"My Maiden Vote" by Richard Le Gallienne
Some tell me, Tim, we shall not meet again,
But for their Loveless Logic need we care? --
If I should win to Heav'n's gate I know
You will be waiting there.
"To Tim -- An Irish Terrier" by Winifred Mary Letts
(Yet though life's logic grow as gray
As thou, my soul's not in eclipse.)
Cold Cloud, but yesterday
Thy lightning slew a child at play,
And then a priest with prayers upon his lips
"Individuality." by Sidney Lanier
But alas for his peace and quiet,
One day, when he went it blind,
And followed his singular fancy,
And slighted his logical mind,
And married a ponderous widow that wasn't of the arguing kind!
"Uncle Sammy" by William McKendree Carleton
On the logic of Saxons there's little reliance,
And, rather from Saxons than gather its rules,
I'd stamp under feet the base book of his science,
And spit on his chair as he taught in the schools!
"The Last Irish Grievance" by William Makepeace Thackeray
Wonderful vehicle, you'll admit,
With not one flaw in the whole of it;
As long as I had it, I declare
I hadn't one cent to pay for repair,
It couldn't break down because, you see,
It was such a logical symphony.
"The Twenty Hoss-Power Shay" by Ellis Parker Butler

In news:

Leaves logic gasping for breath.
Newly designed thermoformer packaging machine with programmable logic controller, servo motors and drives, and I/O modules uses a Gigabit Ethernet bus network.
David Armano also writes the popular Logic Emotion blog.
Airport Checkpoint Logic Still Defies Good Sense .
Airport Checkpoint Logic Still Defies Good Sense.
The San Francisco trio talks 'Internal Logic,' Spock and starting a label.
Sometimes what looks like logic can take us down a road to ugly.
Last Wednesday, I sat and watched as the City Council went through one of those exercises in logic that have earned it a special place in our affections.
In many homes, the laundry room is the logical place for working on hobbies or storing recreational equipment, pet supplies, and nonperishable groceries.
The more extreme the doctrine, the firmer its reliance on what passes for logic and historical evidence.
This Super Bowl ad recap by the Miller High Life Guy is well-taken: The ads were entertaining, but not always logical.
Why people of the book have such trouble with language, truth and logic.
Charles Krauthammer on the perverse logic of Attorney General Eric Holder.
But when our heart's involved, it's hard to apply the same logic.
I propose, through semi-decent logic, that "La la Blues," written by Pokey, be the new Cardinals celebration song.
***

In science:

Within this pro ject inductive definition logic (ID-logic) is used as representation logic.
SLDNFA-system
The semantics of ID-logic integrates classical logic semantics and well-founded semantics.
SLDNFA-system
An interpretation M is a model of an ID-logic theory T iff it is a total model of its classical logic sentences and of its definitions.
SLDNFA-system
Let us mention that all the three systems above are in fact well-known, classical so to say three-valued logics: h∧GNW, ∨GNW, ∼i is the logic of Lukasiewicz, h∧SAC, ∨SAC, ∼i is the logic of Soboci´nski, and h∧Sch, ∨Sch, ∼i is the logic of Bochvar.
The temporal calculus of conditional objects and conditional events
The logic would then assume the form of a propositional logic with multivalued temporal connectives and conditioning.
The temporal calculus of conditional objects and conditional events
Quantum Logics, as defined by are such Logics but the orthogonal complement does not provide a proper negation.
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
The results are straightforward translation from KLM and L-logics do not seem to behave in any better way with respect to connectives than C-logics.
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
The reason it may be interesting is that Quantum Logics are not only C-logics but also L-logics.
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
The finer study of C-logics relies, as for monotonic logics, on the notions of a consistent set and of a theory.
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
We may now show that propositional nonmonotonic logic is not weaker than (and therefore exactly the same as) monotonic logic.
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
By Theorem 9 any operation C presented as a Quantum Logic is an L-logics, therefore a C-logics.
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
Quantum Logics are nonmonotonic logics as noticed by Engesser and Gabbay, they are also very respectable nonmonotonic logics since they are L-logics.
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
We think of nonmonotonic logic as sharing the normative character of other logics.
Evaluating Defaults
Modal logic is an extension of classical logic with (generally) a new connective 2 and its derivable counterpart ♦, known as necessity and possibility respectively.
Logic-Based Specification Languages for Intelligent Software Agents
In order to give meaning to 2 and ♦, models for modal logic are usually based on possibleworlds, which are essentially a collection of connected models for classical logic.
Logic-Based Specification Languages for Intelligent Software Agents
***