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kidney

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n kidney either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine "urine passes out of the kidney through ureters to the bladder"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: People who meet their calcium need reduce their risk of developing kidney stones
    • Kidney (Anat) A glandular organ which excretes urea and other waste products from the animal body; a urinary gland.
    • Kidney A waiter.
    • Kidney Habit; disposition; sort; kind; as, a man of a different kidney . "There are in later times other decrees, made by popes of another kidney .""Millions in the world of this man's kidney .""Your poets, spendthrifts, and other fools of that kidney, pretend, forsooth, to crack their jokes on prudence."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The kidneys filter over 400 gallons of blood each day
    • n kidney In anatomy, a glandular structure whose function is the purification of the blood by the excretion of urine; one of the renes or reins; a renal organ. Kidneys are of very various shapes and positions in the body, and often of loosely lobu-lated structure. In the higher vertebrates they are always paired and of compact figure, tending to become bean-shaped glands, as in man. The kidneys of man arc situated in the loins, opposite the upper lumbar vertebræ, behind the peritoneum, embedded in fat, and capped by the adrenals or suprarenal capsules. The left is somewhat higher than the right, which leaves room for the liver. They are purplish-brown in color, about 4 inches long, 2½ broad, and 1¼ thick; they weigh about 4½ ounces. Section displays an outer cortical substance, darkerand softer than the rest, consisting chiefly of uriniferous tubules and Malpighian corpuscles. (See corpuscle.) The inner or medullary substance is composed of numerous distinctly striated conical masses, or Malpighian pyramids, whose bases are directed peripherally, while their apices converge toward the interior, ending in the papillæ:, which project into the cavity of the pelvis. There are from 8 to 18 such pyramids, composed mainly of minute straight and looped uriniferous tubules, which proceed from the cortical substance to open on the papillæ. One such papilla, or a set of several papillæ, protrudes into a compartment of the general cavity called a calyx; the calyces unite in three infundibula, the beginnings of the general cavity of the kidney, the pelvis, which is also the funnel-shaped beginning of the ureter, the tube by which the urine passes to the bladder. The hilum of the kidney is the place on the median or concave side of the kidney, corresponding to the place of the scar on a bean, where the ureter goes out, and where the vessels and nerves enter. The organs are abundantly supplied with nerves, bloodvessels, and lymphatics. In its minute and essential structure the kidney consists of a great number of branching, looped, and convoluted epithelial tubes (tubuli uriniferi), terminating in dilatations, each dilatation enveloping a plexus of blood-vessels and forming a Malpighian body. These tubes, moreover.arc abundantly supplied with blood-vessels. Malpighian bodies and tubules both share in the work of secreting, but there is reason to think that the former have to do with the secretion of the water and less important parts of the urine, while the elimination of the nitrogenous waste falls on the tubular epithelium. The kidneys, or, in the singular as a collective noun, the kidney, as an important internal organ whose condition is a more or less accurate index of one's bodily health, and, as formerly thought, of one's “humor” or temperament, was formerly often spoken of (somewhat like liver, heart, bowels, stomach, etc.) with reference to one's constitution, temperament, temper, disposition, or inward feelings. As thus used in the quotation from Shakspere, the word has been misunderstood, as if meaning ‘sort’ or ‘kind,’ whence that use in later authors.
    • n kidney Anything resembling a kidney in shape or otherwise, as a potato.
    • n kidney plural The inmost parts; the reins.
    • n kidney A waiting-servant.
    • n kidney In min., a concretion shaped like a kidney.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Each day 400 gallons of recycled blood are pumped through the kidneys
    • n Kidney kid′ni one of two flattened glands, on each side of the loins, which secrete the urine: temperament, humour, disposition—hence, sort or kind, as in 'of the same kidney,' &c
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. kidnei, kidnere, from Icel. koiðr, belly, womb (akin to Goth. gipus, AS. cwiþ, womb) + OE. nere, kidney; akin to D. nier, G. niere, OHG. nioro, Icel. nȳra, Dan. nyre, Sw. njure, and probably to Gr. nefro`s Cf. Kite belly
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
M. E. kidnere—Ice. kviðr, the womb, the belly, Ice. nýra (Ger. niere, a kidney).

Usage

In literature:

The kidneys of this lamb were large enough to cover the palm of my hand, though the animal was undoubtedly undiseased.
"A Narrative of the Expedition to Dongola and Sennaar" by George Bethune English
It seems to have not only strong cathartic properties, but a special action upon the kidneys and liver.
"Saratoga and How to See It" by R. F. Dearborn
Why should meat have any bad effect upon the kidneys?
"The Healthy Life, Vol. V, Nos. 24-28" by Various
Saints, he seems scarcely of the kidney to take kindly to so many prayers.
"Prisoners of Chance" by Randall Parrish
The #Rhabdomyoma# is an extremely rare form of tumour, met with in the kidney, uterus, and testicle.
"Manual of Surgery" by Alexis Thomson and Alexander Miles
Mr. Marien: The Wardwell Kidney.
"Trees, Fruits and Flowers of Minnesota, 1916" by Various
Potato soup; steak and kidney pudding; apples stewed in syrup.
"The Girl's Own Paper, Vol. VIII, No. 354, October 9, 1886" by Various
Still, it is more likely he is to be found in the lowest dens, among rascals of his own kidney.
"A Jacobite Exile" by G. A. Henty
Scales from the Kidney Tubes.
"Manhood Perfectly Restored" by Unknown
Not less harmful are the many advertised "kidney cures," "kidney remedies," "buchus," and kindred preparations.
"The People's Common Sense Medical Adviser in Plain English" by R. V. Pierce
I'll order deviled lam kidneys for three.
"Captain Scraggs" by Peter B. Kyne
The principal organs of elimination, common to both sexes, are the bowels, kidneys, lungs, and skin.
"Sex in Education" by Edward H. Clarke
And you know, too, that most of the water that passes out of the body goes first to the kidneys.
"The Child's Day" by Woods Hutchinson
His kidneys seemed to be wrenched out of him.
"The Sky Is Falling" by Lester del Rey
Since then his kidneys have become affected, and he now suffers from both malaria and lumbago.
"Born Again" by Alfred Lawson
Of the percentage of Wall Street men who need medical attention immediately, most have kidney or heart disease.
"The Eugenic Marriage, Volume I. (of IV.)" by W. Grant Hague, M.D.
This is especially true of sweetbreads, liver and kidney.
"How to Live" by Irving Fisher and Eugene Fisk
Perhaps you would like a kidney instead of a devil?
"Henrietta Temple A Love Story" by Benjamin Disraeli
This work is performed by the lungs, liver, kidneys, skin, and mucous membrane.
"Plain Facts for Old and Young" by John Harvey Kellogg
Cut the kidneys into small squares after parboiling and skinning.
"The Myrtle Reed Cook Book" by Myrtle Reed
***

In poetry:

Two rows of cabbages,
Two of curly-greens
Two rows of early peas,
Two of kidney beans.
"In the Ambulance" by Wilfrid Wilson Gibson
Two rows of cabbages,
Two of curly-greens
Two rows of early peas,
Two of kidney beans.
"In the Ambulance" by Wilfrid Wilson Gibson
The eterna materia goes marching on
happily through your gut's dark cavern-cells,
and to the dead waste rich life is given
within the ardent kidneys' boiling wells!
"Ode [Óda]" by Attila Jozsef
I swam out to Sidney, on my floating kidney
And then, back to Alsace Lorraine
When I stepped on the pier, the wife shouted, "I'm here!"
So I jumped in the water again.
"The Sailor's Farewell To His Horse." by Billy Bennett
I think a great deal too much fuss
Has been aroused 'mid all of us
About this crude economist John T.
And fellows of his kidney now,
'Mid people up in Sydney now,
Are slipping in that city of the free.
"'John T'" by C J Dennis
I've tickled beef in my time clear from Clarke to Riverina,
An' shifted sheep all round the shop, but blow me if I've seen a
Single blanky hand who didn't buck at pleasures of this kidney,
And wouldn't trade his blisses for a flutter down in Sydney.
"The Fact of the Matter" by Edward Dyson

In news:

He was diagnosed with kidney disease in 2008.
This is Heston's take on a traditional steak and kidney pudding with tender slow-cooked oxtail .
Doctors tested her kidney function and said there is "a little damage" but nothing to worry about.
She was diagnosed with kidney disease in 1994.
Parakeet 's limp may be due to kidney tumor.
People who are on dialysis because of kidney failure are at risk for cardiovascular disease caused by a buildup of phosphate in their bodies, and standard drugs are often only partly effective.
NORMAN — The PKD Foundation will raise money and awareness about Polycystic Kidney Disease Saturday with the Oklahoma Walk for PKD .
These are PKD survivors, polycystic kidney disease the Walk for PKD is this Sat.
The PKD Foundation, a research and advocacy group for Polycyctic Kidney Disease, is looking for a new CEO after its president and CEO Dan Larson announced.
Hundreds of people in San Francisco will be trying to raise money this weekend for a disease many have never heard of, even though it's one of the most common causes of kidney failure.
For Jaime Lazarus, raising awareness about polycystic kidney disease is an ongoing battle.
The Oklahoma Walk for polycystic kidney disease will be Saturday in Stars and Stripes Park on the south shore of Lake Hefner.
Oklahoma Walk for polycystic kidney disease will be at Lake Hefner.
John Byrne, the lead singer of garage-rock band Count Five and the writer of their 1966 hit " Psychotic Reaction," died on December 15th following kidney and liver failure in San Jose, California.
Catonsville man to descend from hotel to raise money for National Kidney Foundation of Maryland.
***

In science:

Parylene STFs have been fabricated as scaffolds on which, for example, both kidney and fibroblast cells can grow [22, 76].
Thin-Film Metamaterials called Sculptured Thin Films
Predict random effects Zhang et al. (2008) wanted to estimate sub ject-specific rates of disease progression in chronic kidney disease patients.
Misspecifying the Shape of a Random Effects Distribution: Why Getting It Wrong May Not Matter
They estimated sub ject-specific slopes of the change in glomerular filtration rate (a measure of kidney function) over time.
Misspecifying the Shape of a Random Effects Distribution: Why Getting It Wrong May Not Matter
Each of the above examples describes clustered or longitudinal studies, in which repeated observations of the outcome are taken within clusters, for example, multiple measurements of kidney function on a patient.
Misspecifying the Shape of a Random Effects Distribution: Why Getting It Wrong May Not Matter
The refocusing properties have numerous interesting applications, in detection, destruction of kidney stones, and wireless communication for instance.
Loss of Resolution for the Time Reversal of Waves in Random Underwater Acoustic Channels
Experiments were conducted on Baby hamster kidney cells (BHK) grown on a coverslip in cell culture medium for 2 days.
Membrane bound protein diffusion viewed by fluorescence recovery after bleaching experiments : models analysis
Quantitative trait loci associated with susceptibility to Escherichia coli bladder and kidney infections in C3H/HeJ female mice.
Introducing the discussion paper by Sz\'{e}kely and Rizzo
***