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calorimeter

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n calorimeter a measuring instrument that determines quantities of heat
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Calorimeter (Physiol) An apparatus for measuring the amount of heat contained in bodies or developed by some mechanical or chemical process, as friction, chemical combination, combustion, etc. For combustion processes, a bomb calorimeter may be used.
    • Calorimeter (Engineering) An apparatus for measuring the proportion of unevaporated water contained in steam.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n calorimeter An apparatus for measuring the quantity of heat given off by a body under different conditions: used in determining the specific heat of different substances, the latent heat of fusion, expansion, or vaporization, and the heat of combustion, or of chemical combination in general. In the ice-calorimeter the substance to be operated on is inclosed in a cavity of ice, and the quantity of heat is determined by observing the increase of volume due to the melting of a portion of the ice. In other forms the rise in temperature of a known quantity of some liquid, as water or mercury, or the amount of expansion caused in a known volume of mercury, is noted.
    • n calorimeter The calorimeter is used to determine, in thermal units, the heat liberated or absorbed in the course of any physical or chemical process, such as change of temperature, change of state, the solution of a solid in a liquid, the mixture of liquids, chemical action, or any mechanical, electric or magnetic process involving transformations of energy. The thermal unit almost universally employed is the calory, that is, the amount of heat required to raise one gram, or sometimes one kilogram, of water from 0° C. to 1° C.; but other thermal quantities, the relation of which to the calory is definitely known (such as the heat of fusion of ice, or the heat of vaporization of water), are sometimes used. For the determination of specific heat the calorimeter commonly consists of a metal vessel, the water-equivalent of which is known, containing a known quantity of water of known temperature. The substance the specific heat of which is to be determined is weighed, heated to some carefully measured higher temperature, and plunged into the water, and the change in the temperature of the latter is observed. The most serious error in this operation is that arising from the exchange of heat between the calorimeter and its surroundings, and numerous devices have been employed to reduce this error to a minimum. For this purpose the calorimeter (C) is sometimes suspended within an outer chamber (o, o) by non-conducting supports as shown in Fig. 1. The outer surface of the calorimeter and the inner surface of the containing-vessel, both of which are metal, are highly polished in order to diminish radiation. In the Waterman calorimeter the substance to be tested is heated in a vessel surrounded by a coil of wire through which an electric current flows. It is then placed in a cup (C, Fig. 2) with double walls, which serves as the bulb of an air-thermometer. Ice-cold water is added in quantity just sufficient to counterbalance the rise of temperature. The mercury column in the manometer tube indicates the temperature of the cup. Much more perfect isolation may be obtained by using as a calorimeter a Dewar flask. This consists of a glass vessel (Fig. 3) with double walls, from the space between which the air has been carefully removed. The outer surface of the inner flask and the interior of the outer one are silvered. The exchange of heat under these conditions is exceedingly slow, and such flasks form excellent calorimeters. The determination of specific heats by means of the fusion of ice was first suggested by Black, in the eighteenth century, who employed for this purpose a block of clear ice (Fig. 4). The substance the specific heat of which is desired is heated and then placed in a cavity (C) within the block. A slab of ice (S) serves as a cover. The amount of water melted by the inclosed body in cooling to 0°C. measures the specific heat. Lavoisier and Laplace substituted for Black's ice-block a calorimeter consisting of an inner cage containing the body to be tested, surrounded by a double-walled vessel packed with broken ice at the melting-point. The ice melted by the heat liberated from the cooling body was collected and weighed. In Bunsen's ice-calorimeter the amount of ice melted is determined by the change in volume which that substance undergoes when converted into the liquid form. The apparatus, which is shown in Fig. 5, consists of an inner tube of glass sealed into a larger vessel of the same substance, the neck of which is bent upward and ends in a horizontal capillary tube . The upper portion of the outer vessel surrounding the tube a is filled with water, below which is mercury extending continuously through the neck into the capillary tube. By means of a freezing-mixture in a, a mantle of ice is formed around the outside of the inner tube, after which the freezing-mixture is removed and the whole apparatus is packed in melting ice. If now a body the specific heat of which is to be determined is introduced into a, a portion of the ice-mantle will be melted, and, in consequence of the diminution of volume, the mercury column in the capillary tube will recede toward the neck of the calorimeter. Its movement affords a measure of the volume of ice melted, and thus of the heat liberated by the cooling body. The Bunsen ice-calorimeter is an instrument of great delicacy and is specially adapted for the measurement of very small quantities of heat. Unfortunately, the density of the ice depends somewhat upon the rapidity with which it is formed, and considerable errors are thus introduced. The heat of vaporization of water has been utilized by Joly and others for calorimetric purposes. The July steam-calorimeter depends upon the determination of the amount of moisture condensed upon the surface of a substance when the latter is plunged into an atmosphere of steam. This apparatus consists of a steam-chamber with thin metal walls, within which, suspended from an arm of a balance, hangs a small platinum scale-pan of conical form. A known weight of the substance the specific heat of which is to be determined is placed on the pan, and its temperature is noted. Steam is then introduced into the chamber, and condensation occurs on the surface of the cool body, adding to its weight. When the substance has attained the temperature of the steam, and condensation is complete, the increase of weight is determined. For the determination of the specific heat of liquids and gases, various forms of calorimeter have teen devised. One of these, the continuous-flaw calorimeter of Callendar and Barnes, which has been employed in the determination of the specific heat of water at various temperatures, is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 6. It consists essentially of a capillary tube (AB) connecting at the ends with larger tubes and sealed into a glass vacuum-jacket. The liquid the specific heat of which is to be determined enters the tube at i and flows out at o at a measured rate. By means of a fine wire stretched through the bore of the capillary tube and supplied with a known electric current, heat is imparted to the liquid. The temperatures of the inflowing liquid at A and of the outflowing liquid at B are determined by means of the resistance of coils of platinum wire inserted in the larger tubes. From the amount of liquid passing in a given time and the amount of heat delivered to it electrically from the heating-wire, together with the difference of temperature at the ends of the tube, the specific heat of the liquid can be determined with great accuracy. For the determination of heats of combustion, heats of solution, and other thermochemical processes, a number of special forms of calorimeter have been devised. Among these are the Favre and Silberman calorimeter, in which the heat of a chemical reaction is imparted to mercury contained in a bulb with a capillary neck, and the expansion of the liquid is noted; the Junker calorimeter and the bomb calorimeters of Berthelot and Stohmann, for the study of heats of combustion; and the respiration calorimeter, for the determination of the heat evolved by animals or by human subjects. Other forms, called electrocalorimeters, are employed for measuring the heat developed by the electric current.
    • n calorimeter A form of bomb calorimeter for the determination of the heat of combustion. See calorimeter.
    • n calorimeter The essential features of the calorimeter are the following: a metal chamber, furnished with a chair, table, and bed, in which the subject of the experiment (usually a man) lives, eats, drinks, sleeps, and sometimes works, during a period of several days and nights.
    • n calorimeter Arrangements for ventilating the chamber and for analyzing and measuring the air supplied to and received from the chamber.
    • n calorimeter Facilities for passing food and drink into the chamber and for removing excreta. These materials are weighed and analyzed by sample, and their heat of combustion determined.
    • n calorimeter Facilities for measuring the heat given off by the body and the heat-equivalent of any muscular work done. The income and outgo of energy of the body are expressed in terms of heat, the total heat of combustion of the food eaten being compared with the total heat given off by the body. The analyses of the food and excreta also show the digestibility of the food; that is, the proportion of the nutrients actually utilized in the body. The complete apparatus is complicated, and each experiment is laborious and expensive. Observations are taken constantly, day and night, by several observers during the entire period of the experiment, usually lasting from four to eight days. The results obtained have been of the highest scientific value.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Calorimeter an instrument for measuring the specific heat of a body
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. calor, heat + -meter,; cf. F. calorimètre,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr. calorique, formed by Lavoisier from L. calor, heat.

Usage

In literature:

It is greatly preferable therefore to increase the calorimeter, and diminish the intensity of the draught.
"A Catechism of the Steam Engine" by John Bourne
The Respiration Calorimeter: Year-book U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1904.
"Human Foods and Their Nutritive Value" by Harry Snyder
Modern calorimeters are in general of either the throttling or separator type.
"Steam, Its Generation and Use" by Babcock & Wilcox Co.
The quality of the steam may be determined from time to time by the use of a throttling calorimeter.
"Steam Turbines" by Hubert E. Collins
Under ordinary conditions with rest experiments in the chair calorimeter or bed calorimeter, the temperature differences run not far from 2 deg.
"Respiration Calorimeters for Studying the Respiratory Exchange and Energy Transformations of Man" by Francis Gano Benedict
The calorimeter is represented in Pl.
"Elements of Chemistry," by Antoine Lavoisier
In the laboratory this is determined by burning the food in oxygen in a calorimeter.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 4" by Various
A calorimeter is any piece of apparatus in which heat is measured.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 1" by Various
The following table represents the amount of heat produced as the result of a complete oxidation of the foodstuffs in the calorimeter.
"Dietetics for Nurses" by Fairfax T. Proudfit
An instrument called a calorimeter is used to determine the amount of heat a substance will give off upon oxidation.
"The Philippine Agricultural Review" by Various
The ordinary bomb calorimeter is also used.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 3" by Various
The calorific value of the gas should be measured either by the Witz apparatus or by means of any other calorimeter.
"Gas-Engines and Producer-Gas Plants" by R. E. Mathot
One is a new calorimeter for measuring the amount of heat produced by the combustion of any body.
"Heroes of Science: Physicists" by William Garnett
C. through a spiral tube in a calorimeter containing water.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 2" by Various
Such a device is called a calorimeter.
"Foods and Household Management" by Helen Kinne
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In news:

Revision of D240 - 09 Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter .
WK39026 Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter .
Revision of D4809 - 09a Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter (Precision Method).
Revision of E1623 - 11 Standard Test Method for Determination of Fire and Thermal Parameters of Materials, Products, and Systems Using an Intermediate Scale Calorimeter (ICAL).
A more common term is Initial Test Heat Flux which is the same term used in ASTM E1354 Cone Calorimeter .
The NETZSCH Analyzing & Testing Business Unit recently announced its acquisition of the TIAX accelerating rate calorimeters (ARC®) and automatic pressure tracking adiabatic calorimeters (APTAC™).
Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimeter .
Curing evaluator UV Process Supply Chicago IL USA UV Process Supply has introduced the CON-TROL-CURE Thin Film Calorimeter (TFC-9000).
The pale blue volume shows the CMS crystal calorimeter barrel.
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In science:

Scintillating crystal detectors have been widely used as electromagnetic calorimeters in high energy physics, as well as in medical and security imaging and in the oil-extraction industry.
A CsI(Tl) Scintillating Crystal Detector for the Studies of Low Energy Neutrino Interactions
This question is especially important when a hadronic calorimeter have a complex structure being a combined calorimeter.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
For the energy reconstruction and description of the longitudinal development of a hadronic shower it is necessary to know the e/h ratios, the degree of non-compensation, of these calorimeters.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
This question is especially important for a combined calorimeter.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
The combined calorimeter prototype setup has been made consisting of the LAr electromagnetic calorimeter prototype inside the cryostat and downstream the Tile calorimeter prototype as shown in Fig. 1.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
At this angle the two calorimeters have an active thickness of 10.3 λI .
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
We applied some similar to [8, 9] cuts to eliminate the non-single track pion events, the beam halo, the events with an interaction before the LAr calorimeter, the electron and muon events.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
We selected the events which start to shower only in the hadronic calorimeter.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
To select these events the energies deposited in each sampling of the LAr calorimeter and in the midsampler are required to be compatible with that of a single minimum ionization particle.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
Tile calorimeter response corrected on the energy loss in the LAr calorimeter, fπ0, T ile is determined by the formula (8).
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
For this case we select the events with the well developed hadronic showers in the electromagnetic calorimeter.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
But our data are from the calorimeter face and due to the unsufficient longitudinal segmentation can not be transformed to the shower origin.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
Note that the formula (16) is given for a calorimeter characterizing by the certain X0 and λI values.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
At the same time, the values of X0, λI and the e/h ratios are different for electromagnetic and hadronic compartments of a combined calorimeter.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
In suggested the following algorithm of combination of the electromagnetic calorimeter (em) and hadronic calorimeter (had) curves of the differential longitudinal energy deposition dE /dx.
Hadron Energy Reconstruction for the ATLAS Barrel Prototype Combined Calorimeter in the Framework of the Non-parametrical Method
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