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  • WordNet 3.6
    • n adversary someone who offers opposition
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The origin of right-handed buttons on men's shirts stems from battles where they wore armor. With most men being right handed the armor needed to overlap so that a sword could not enter through the gap during a right-handed blow from an adversary.
    • Adversary (Law) Having an opposing party; not unopposed; as, an adversary suit.
    • n Adversary One who is turned against another or others with a design to oppose or resist them; a member of an opposing or hostile party; an opponent; an antagonist; an enemy; a foe. "His ancient knot of dangerous adversaries .""Agree with thine adversary quickly.""It may be thought that to vindicate the permanency of truth is to dispute without an adversary ."
    • Adversary Opposed; opposite; adverse; antagonistic.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • adversary Opposed; opposite to; adverse: antagonistic: as, “adversary forces,” Bp. King.
    • adversary In law, having an opposing party, in contradistinction to unopposed: as, an adversary suit.
    • n adversary One who acts adversely or inimically; an unfriendly opponent or antagonist; an enemy.
    • n adversary Specifically [capitalized] The devil; Satan as the general enemy of mankind: as, the wiles of the Adversary.
    • n adversary An opponent in a contest; one who contends against another or strives for victory; a contestant.
    • n adversary Synonyms and Adversary, Antagonist, Opponent, Enemy, Foe. These words vary in strength according as they express spirit, action, or relation. A foe has most of the spirit of enmity, or is actively hostile. The word is more used in poetry than in prose. Enemy, as denoting an opponent in war, or a member of an opposing party, does not necessarily imply personal hostility. Opponent, adversary, and antagonist are less severe in their opposition, and need have no animosity. Opponent is often a passive word; antagonist is always active and personal. A man may be our opponent in an argument or a lawsuit, our adversary in a game, as chess, our antagonist in a wrestling- or boxing-match, or other occasion of strenuous exertion: the choice between the three words depends chiefly upon the measure of activity involved. In the Bible, adversary covers the meaning of all five words.
    • adversary To antagonize; oppose.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Adversary ad′vėrs-ar-i an opponent: an enemy: Satan, as the general adversary of mankind.
    • ***


  • Sir Henry Wotton
    Sir Henry Wotton
    “Tell the truth, and so puzzle and confound your adversaries.”
  • Mark Twain
    “The rule is perfect: in all matters of opinion our adversaries are insane.”
  • Gerald R. Ford
    “I have had a lot of adversaries in my political life, but no enemies that I can remember.”
  • Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
    “No prudent antagonist thinks light of his adversaries.”
  • Samuel Johnson
    “Treating your adversary with respect is giving him an advantage to which he is not entitled.”
  • Benjamin Franklin
    “They that are on their guard and appear ready to receive their adversaries, are in much less danger of being attacked than the supine, secure and negligent.”


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. adversarie, direct fr. the Latin, and adversaire, fr. OF. adversier, aversier, fr. L. adversarius,a.) turned toward, (n.) an adversary. See Adverse
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. aversier—L. adversarius. See Adverse.


In literature:

He was fighting like a cave man who has brooded for months on his revenge, and he was a terrible adversary.
"The Heart of the Desert" by Honoré Willsie Morrow
Like Tindal, he makes his adversaries state their case far too weakly.
"The English Church in the Eighteenth Century" by Charles J. Abbey and John H. Overton
Gen. Johnston, penetrating the designs of his adversary, commenced operations to prevent their accomplishment.
"Memorial Addresses on the Life and Character of William H. F. Lee (A Representative from Virginia)" by Various
Lord John Russell, the policy of your wily adversary would no longer be concealed.
"Punch, or the London Charivari, Volume 1, Complete" by Various
Lieutenant D'Hubert, his faculties concentrated upon defence, needed all his skill and science of the sword to stop the rushes of his adversary.
"The Point Of Honor A Military Tale" by Joseph Conrad
The Parade in Quart, with the Point sloping towards your Adversaries Right-thigh, and as though without it.
"The School of Recreation (1696 edition)" by Robert Howlett
He tacked in order to chase and attack him, but in vain, for his second adversary had fled.
"Georges Guynemer" by Henry Bordeaux
Cooper then closed with his adversary, but Cochran being a large, strong man they were pretty well matched for the scuffle.
"The Story of Cooperstown" by Ralph Birdsall
They give occasion to the adversaries to speak reproachfully.
"Modern Skepticism: A Journey Through the Land of Doubt and Back Again" by Joseph Barker
Cannot you see that you insult Him you make prayer to, when you give Him for adversary a vile, monstrous toad?
"The Well of Saint Clare" by Anatole France
He continued his course, presuming that his adversary was impatiently awaiting his approach.
"The Vicomte de Bragelonne" by Alexandre Dumas
At last, vanquished by his adversary's determination, Giannetto Rutolo was silent.
"The Child of Pleasure" by Gabriele D'Annunzio
As a party their adversaries are more sure and more earnest.
"Memoir of the Life of John Quincy Adams." by Josiah Quincy
He was now not only an accomplice, but a protector, who might become a formidable adversary.
"The Son of Monte Christo" by Jules Lermina
The "Wasp" had suffered severely, but was in much better condition than her captured adversary.
"The Naval History of the United States" by Willis J. Abbot
The best points to secure are the five-point in your own inner table and the five-point in your adversary's inner table.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 1" by Various
We are inaugurating the history of men; for we have no weapon but discussion, and no adversary but prejudice.
"Lectures on the French Revolution" by John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton
After Madame de Chevreuse, Mazarin had had no adversaries more dangerous than the Vendomes and Bouillons.
"Political Women, Vol. 2 (of 2)" by Sutherland Menzies
They had not foresight or ability to divide their adversaries, and they were vanquished in 1830 by the united democracy.
"The History of Freedom" by John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton
Spencer scored the winning trick before his adversary obtained an opening.
"The Silent Barrier" by Louis Tracy

In poetry:

Yet still my adversaries live,
They daily multiply and thrive,
And they that hated me the most,
Are now become a countless host.
"Psalm XXXVIII." by Rees Prichard
The abbot who filled the pontifical chair
In thirteen seventy-eight;
His adversaries he did not spare,
When fixed on his throne of state.
"Enigma XXXIV." by Elizabeth Hitchener
Suffer nor Turk, nor Pope, nor Pagan — no!
Nor any Pow'r, thy vineyard to annoy —
But still to all her foes be thou a foe,
And all her adversaries quite destroy.
"A Prayer For The Church" by Rees Prichard
Christ is a King, endu'd with might and grace,
Who wisely governs his elected race,
Who plucks their haughty adversaries down,
That each may win and wear a glorious crown.
"Christ Is All In All" by Rees Prichard
My adversaries' full-swoll'n pride abate,
Assuage their malice, and their causeless hate,
Confound the schemes of the blood-thirsty train,
And, for Christ's sake, relieve me from my pain.
"A Prayer, Against The Oppression Of One's Foe. " by Rees Prichard
"Lord God of Hosts," the people pray,
"Make strong our arms that we may slay
Our cursed foe and win the day."
"Lord God of Battles," cries the foe,
"Guide us to strike a bloody blow,
And lay the adversary low."
"God's Grief" by Robert W Service

In news:

Police and prosecutors today increasingly bemoan a major courtroom adversary: the so-called CSI effect, named after the immensely popular CBS franchise.
The Death of the Adversary Comedy in a Minor Key.
His progressive adversaries have, however, retreated from their original pretext for attempting to overturn the election Walker won handily just 19 months ago.
Walker's disproportionately middle-aged adversaries know the red star symbolized murderous totalitarianism, yet they flaunt it as a progressive ornament.
Where a US Bankruptcy Court judge dismissed a creditor's adversarial complaint against a debtor, the dismissal was beyond the scope of a remand order and also was legal error.
Higher-tech motor starters and drives tackle new adversaries out West.
Though we may not have fully come to terms with it, in theory we know that high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an adversary of health.
"Harry's Law": Second season brings changes, unyielding adversary for Harry.
Does it validate Obama policy of engaging adversaries.
Hinkle used the tried and true method of attack among political adversaries — he pulled out one of Obama's old quotes and threw it in his face.
Old And Cold QPRT Stands Up To Alter Ego Challenge In Bankruptcy Adversary Proceeding.
President Barack Obama's victory means his economic vision is still alive and about to drive the political conversation with his adversaries.
"The Hobbit" might not be released in cinemas yet, but Gandalf the wizard and Smaug his fire-breathing adversary are already here in Tacoma's North End, courtesy of a 10-foot fir stump and a creative chainsaw sculptor.
Once more, we play our dangerous game, a game of chess against our old adversary.
Martin attributed his defeat to heavy spending by his political adversaries on negative and sometimes false advertising.

In science:

The decoder does not know pY|XSa selected by the adversary and has access to Sd .
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
We allow the encoder/decoder pair (fN, gN ) to be randomized, i.e., the choice of (fN, gN ) is a function of a random variable known to the encoder and decoder but not to the adversary.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
We do not follow this approach because pS a |S e is fixed and pY|XSa is optimized by the adversary; hence these p.m.f.’s appear separately in the problem formulation and its solution. A similar comment applies to Sd .
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
N ! permutations and is not revealed to the adversary.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
The case of channels with arbitrary memory sub ject to expected-distortion constraints admits a trivial solution: the adversary “obliterates” X with a fixed, nonzero probability that depends on D2 but not on N, and therefore no reliable communication is possible in the sense of Def. 2.7 below.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
E (R) = lim inf There are four combinations of maximum/expected cost constraints for the transmitter and CDMC/CAM designs for the adversary (four flavors of the generalized Gel’fand-Pinsker problem), and a question is whether same capacity and error exponents will be obtained in all four cases.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
Generally that additional flexibility is beneficial for the adversary, and the worst conditional type does not satisfy the hard constraint (2.4).
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
First, partial information about the state sequence is available to the encoder, adversary, and decoder.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
We have considered four combinations of maximum/expected cost constraints for the transmitter and CDMC/CAM designs for the adversary, and obtained the same capacity in all four cases.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
In terms of error exponents however, there is a definite advantage to the adversary in choosing a CDMC rather than a CAM design of the channel.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
This is because 1) arbitrary memory does not help the adversary because randomly-modulated codes and a MMI-type decoder are used, 2) the set of conditional types the adversary can choose from is constrained in the CAM case but not in the CDMC case, and 3) the error exponents are determined by the worst types.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
The AVC is a family of conditional p.m.f.’s W (y |x, θ), where θ ∈ Θ (finite set) is a “channel state” selected by the adversary. A cost function l : Θ → R+ for the states is also defined.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
In some formulations of the jamming problem, θ must be selected by the adversary before seeing x; in other formulations, θi is allowed to depend on xi but not on other samples of x [17, 20]; yet in other formulations (the A*VC model ), θi is allowed to depend on xj for all j ≤ i.
Capacity and Random-Coding Exponents for Channel Coding with Side Information
It follows from [13, 17] that these results apply also in the more general setting of adaptive adversaries (see references for a definition).
Simple Permutations Mix Even Better
Let T be the minimal number of random compositions of independent and uniformly distributed permutations from Σ needed to generate a permutation which is ǫ-close to k-wise independent against an adaptive adversary.
Simple Permutations Mix Even Better