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  • Cardinal de Richelieu
    Cardinal de Richelieu
  • Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adv Cardinally fundamentally
    • adv Cardinally (Shak.) carnally (Measure for Measure, II. i. 81))
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Cardinal de Retz——352 Cardinal de Retz——352
Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin——394 Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin——394
Cardinal D'amboise——347 Cardinal D'amboise——347
black and white photo of cardinal black and white photo of cardinal


  • Robert Smith
    Robert Smith
    “Cardinal rule for all hitters with two strikes on them: Never trust the umpire.”
  • Martin Luther
    “I am more afraid of my own heart than the Pope and all his cardinals. I have within me the great Pope, Self.”
  • W. H. Auden
    “Perhaps there is only one cardinal sin: impatience. Because of impatience we were driven out of Paradise, because of impatience we cannot return.”
  • Don Marquis
    “Punctuality is one of the cardinal business virtues: always insist on it in your subordinates.”
  • Lord Byron
    “The Cardinal is at his wit's end -- it is true that he had not far to go.”
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald
    “Every one suspects himself of at least one of the cardinal virtues, and this is mine: I am one of the few honest people that I have ever known.”


Grey Cardinal - Someone who is a Grey Cardinal exerts power behind the scenes, without drawing attention to himself or herself.


In literature:

Cardinal Grimani, he asserts, tried to hold him back, but in vain, for in July, 1509, he left Rome and Italy, never to return.
"Erasmus and the Age of Reformation" by Johan Huizinga
Cardinal Monti in person presided, assisted by two subordinate Cardinals.
"Monte-Cristo's Daughter" by Edmund Flagg
The Cardinal was an early riser, and was to pontificate at high mass in the Lateran.
"Stradella" by F(rancis) Marion Crawford
The cardinals all assembled, and a white dove was let loose: for he on whom it should alight was to be Pope.
"Italian Popular Tales" by Thomas Frederick Crane
There was at that time a lady named La Motte in the service of the queen, of whom the cardinal was foolish enough to make a confidant.
"Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds" by Charles Mackay
The Prince of Conde, the Duke of Guise, and his brother, the Cardinal of Lorraine, were assassinated.
"A Modern History, From the Time of Luther to the Fall of Napoleon" by John Lord
At this moment the Cardinal Salviati steps in to look for the statue.
"The Standard Operaglass" by Charles Annesley
An able or influential cardinal is seldom elected.
"The Greville Memoirs" by Charles C. F. Greville
Moreover, Cardinal Filomarino endeavored to stand as high in the favor of the people as he was low in that of his fellow-nobles.
"The Great Events by Famous Historians, Volume 11" by Various
After the edifice was finished it actually fell into disuse, except for the periodical intervals when the Cardinal visited the capital.
"Royal Palaces and Parks of France" by Milburg Francisco Mansfield
The Cardinal laughed, and turning to Mr Kolb, said, perhaps Cardinal Fesch was still living.
"Diaries of Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore, Volume I" by Sir Moses Montefiore
The Cardinal-legate could not believe that Luther would venture to resist a papal bull, and thought he had probably not read it.
"The Great Events by Famous Historians, Volume 9" by Various
Cusan (Michael Khrypffs), Cardinal de Cusa, 3, 64, 108.
"On the magnet, magnetick bodies also, and on the great magnet the earth" by William Gilbert of Colchester
With a Preface by His Eminence CARDINAL VAUGHAN, late Archbishop of Westminster.
"The Old Riddle and the Newest Answer" by John Gerard
No more cardinals, or bishops!
"The Pocket Bible or Christian the Printer" by Eugène Sue
This is the hardest thing in the world to obtain; and if it was n't that she has a Cardinal an uncle, she might never get it.
"The Dodd Family Abroad, Vol. II.(of II)" by Charles James Lever
Bonaparte, Cardinal Lucien, iii.
"Story of My Life, volumes 1-3" by Augustus J. C. Hare
These were the Cardinal Du Perron, Bertaut, and Vauquelin de la Fresnaye.
"Aspects and Impressions" by Edmund Gosse
A pope appears to be thrown by devils into a cauldron, and cardinals are roasting on spits.
"Amenities of Literature" by Isaac Disraeli
Nor have they the subordinate merit of dealing in a scientific spirit with the cardinal vices and follies of society.
"Renaissance in Italy: Italian Literature" by John Addington Symonds

In poetry:

Wooing the wind's wild caresses,
Courting the sun's fierce flame--
Wantons in cardinal dresses
Flaunting their scarlet shame.
"Flower-Fancies" by Leigh Gordon Giltner
When, bright with purple and with gold,
Come priest and holy Cardinal,
And borne above the heads of all
The gentle Shepherd of the Fold.
"Rome Unvisited" by Oscar Wilde
So if they sometimes seem a choir
That cast a chill of doubt on spring,
They have still higher notes of fire
Like cardinals upon the wing.
"Carolina Spring Song" by William Hervey Allen Jr
Fit for an Abbot of Theleme,
For the whole Cardinals' College, or
The Pope himself to see in dream
Before his lenten vision gleam.
He lies there, the sogdologer!
"To Mr. John Bartlett" by James Russell Lowell
Like colored lanterns swung in Elfin towers,
Wild morning-glories light the tangled ways,
And, like the rosy rockets of the Fays,
Burns the sloped crimson of the cardinal-flowers.
"Quatrains" by Madison Julius Cawein
Adown the brook the dead leaves whirling go;
Above the brook the scarlet sumacs^ burn;
The lonely heron sounds his note of woe
In gloomy forest-swamps, where rankly grow
The crimson cardinal and feathery fern.
"October" by George Arnold

In news:

Cardinals Found Reassurance In Ratzinger's Age, Attitude.
This is the unofficial Vatican translation provided to television broadcasters of Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger's Latin-language homily April 18 at the opening Mass of the conclave that elected him the 265th pope.
Starting Monday, April 18, 2005, 115 cardinals met in Rome to choose the pope to succeed Pope John Paul II.
Learn about the lives of several cardinals whom many consider likely candidates to be the next leader of the Catholic Church.
The name is derived from the Latin cum (with) and clavis (key), and implies the fact that the cardinals are locked together in a room until a new pontiff has been chosen.
Fans celebrate after Game 7 of baseball's World Series between the St Louis Cardinals and the Texas Rangers Friday, Oct 28, 2011, in St Louis.
Like his predecessor, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger brings a long life story to his papacy.
They're crazy about the Cardinals.
Lance Lynn pitched six shutout innings for his 12th win as the Cardinals beat the Cubs 7-0 Sunday.
Right-hander Yovani Gallardo finally shook off his slump on the mound, throwing a fantastic shutout over eight innings against the Cardinals on Saturday afternoon.
In Middletown, Va. During a Civil War battle re-enactment violated the cardinal rule of role play, no loaded weapons.
Mark McGwire Gamble Paid Off For Cardinals.
The lasting image from last year's game in Arizona: 49ers defensive backs sprawled on the grass as Cardinals receivers dashed for big gains and touchdowns.
Washington returns home for possible clinch after 10-4 loss to the Cardinals.
The roughly 15,000 people at University of Phoenix Stadium cheered loudest when receivers Michael Floyd and Larry Fitzgerald snatched deep passes during the Arizona Cardinals' FanFest practice Wednesday night.

In science:

There is, however, an approach to universes based on cardinality: for any infinite cardinal κ let Hκ denote the set of sets which are hereditarily of cardinality < κ; that is, their transitive closure has cardinality < κ.
Set theory for category theory
Unlike for Mahlo cardinals, these stationarity properties are not the definitions of these larger cardinals, but consequences thereof.12 Their actual definitions can be found in books (for example, [Jec03, Kan03]) or the Internet.
Set theory for category theory
For instance, the existence of a measurable cardinal implies that V 6= L, the existence of infinitely many Woodin cardinals implies projective determinacy, and at least some set theorists hope that a large cardinal axiom can be found which will settle the continuum hypothesis; see [Mad88a, Mad88b].
Set theory for category theory
Perhaps surprisingly, set theorists currently believe that there is an upper bound to how large large cardinals can get: there are notions of n-huge cardinal for all n < ω, but the limiting case of an ‘ω -huge’ cardinal is known to be inconsistent with zfc.
Set theory for category theory
Obviously, if there are many X cardinals below any Y cardinal, then the consistency of a Y implies that of an X, but the converse is not always true.
Set theory for category theory
For example, a huge cardinal implies the consistency of extendible cardinals, and hence of supercompact ones, but the least huge cardinal is less than the least supercompact cardinal (if both exist).
Set theory for category theory
For example, what matters for the result quoted above is whether the measurable cardinals are unbounded below κ, rather than how many measurable cardinals there are in ‘absolute’ terms.
Set theory for category theory
This makes the existence of even one Vopˇenka cardinal quite a strong assumption, as large-cardinal axioms go.
Set theory for category theory
On the other hand, Vopˇenka cardinals are stationary in any ‘almost huge’ cardinal.
Set theory for category theory
Thus, the existence of natural models can be regarded as a sort of ‘large cardinal axiom’ significantly weaker than even a single inaccessible (although α need not actually be a cardinal for Vα to be a natural model).
Set theory for category theory
The cardinality (or order) of a partition is the cardinality of the partition regarded as a set.
Second maximal subgroups of the finite alternating and symmetric groups
Namely, let U be the class of all cardinals, and let B = Mod-ZhU i, the category of all “modules over the free ring on the proper class of generators U .” That is, an ob ject X of B is an abelian group such that each κ ∈ U has a Z-linear action on X and this action is trivial for all but a set of cardinals.
Locally well generated homotopy categories of complexes
An open string of positive cardinality cannot propagate to an open string of greater cardinality.
Open strings, Lagrangian conductors and Floer functor
Given a topological space S and k ∈ N, we let S [k ] be the set of all subsets of S of cardinality k, endowed with the product topology, and we let S [≤k ] be the set of all subsets of S of cardinality at most k .
Monotone paths in random hypergraphs
We demonstrate how most common cardinal invariants associated to a von Neumann algebra M can be computed from the decomposability number, dec(M), and the minimal cardinality of a generating set, gen(M).
On cardinal invariants and generators for von Neumann algebras