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yeast

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n yeast any of various single-celled fungi that reproduce asexually by budding or division
    • n yeast a commercial leavening agent containing yeast cells; used to raise the dough in making bread and for fermenting beer or whiskey
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Yeast Spume, or foam, of water. "They melt thy yeast of waves, which mar
      Alike the Armada's pride, or spoils of Trafalgar."
    • Yeast The foam, or troth (top yeast), or the sediment (bottom yeast), of beer or other in fermentation, which contains the yeast plant or its spores, and under certain conditions produces fermentation in saccharine or farinaceous substances; a preparation used for raising dough for bread or cakes, and making it light and puffy; barm; ferment.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n yeast A yellowish substance, having an acid reaction, produced during the alcoholic fermentation of saccharine fluids, rising partly to the surface in the form of a frothy, flocculent, viscid matter (top or surface yeast), and partly falling to the bottom (bottom or sediment yeast). Yeast consists of aggregations of minute cells, each cell constituting a distinct plant, Saccharomyces cerevisiæ. The yeast-plant is a saprophytic fungus of uncertain systematic position, being regarded by some as a degenerate ascomycete, by others as representing a distinct class. It exists under two conditions. In the first it is in the form of transparent round or oval cells, averaging .08 mm. (.003 inch) in diameter, which increase in countless numbers by budding—that is, by the formation of a small daughtercell by the side of the mother-cell, from which it sooner or later separates. The other form consists of larger cells, which, by a division of their protoplasm, form four new cells within the parent-cell. These endogenously formed cells have been likened to the ascospores of the Ascomycetes, with which, as stated above, they are frequently classed. The former notion that the yeast-plant was only the immature condition of a mold has been effectually exploded by Brefeld's elaborate researches. Fermentation takes place sooner and goes on more rapidly when yeast is added than when the fluid is merely exposed to the atmosphere, beer-yeast possessing the property of setting up fermentation in the highest degree. Surface yeast is formed at from 65° to 77° F., and its action is rapid and irregular, whereas sediment yeast is formed at from 32° to 45°, and its action is slow and quiet. Sediment yeast is reproduced by spores, and not by buds. In their chemical relations the two do not appear to differ. Yeast varies in quality according to the nature of the liquid in which it is generated, and yeastmerchants distinguish several varieties, which are employed for different purposes according to their energy and activity. Yeast is employed to induce fermentation in the manufacture of beer and ale, and of distilled spirits, and is also the agent in producing the panary fermentation, whereby bread is rendered light, porous, and spongy. Beer-yeast is employed medicinally as a stimulant in low fevers, and is of great service in cases where, from inflammatory symptoms, wine is inadmissible. See barm, Saccharomyces, fermentation.
    • n yeast Spumc or foam of water; froth.
    • yeast To ferment.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Yeast yēst the froth of malt liquors in fermentation: the vegetable growth to which fermentation is due, of value in brewing, baking, &c.:
    • v.i Yeast to ferment
    • n Yeast yēst (Shak.) spume or foam of water
    • ***

Quotations

  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “Hard work is the yeast that raises the dough”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. ȝeest, ȝest, AS. gist,; akin to D. gest, gist, G. gischt, gäscht, OHG. jesan, jerian, to ferment, G. gischen, gäschen, gähren, Gr. boiled, zei^n to boil, Skr. yas,. √111
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. gist, gyst; Ger. gäscht, gischt.

Usage

In literature:

When lukewarm put in a cup of yeast or a yeast-cake.
"Health on the Farm" by H. F. Harris
But the fermentation of bread is produced by yeast; how does that effect it?
"Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2" by Jane Marcet
You go over to Uncle Nate's and get me some yeast.
"The Wind Before the Dawn" by Dell H. Munger
Ellen, I believe, thought that they had better not attempt the risky experiment, but should start some hop-yeast bread.
"When Life Was Young" by C. A. Stephens
You mix half the butter and sugar, and so on, with the yeast; and when that is light, you put in the other half.
"A Little Country Girl" by Susan Coolidge
Yeasts and some fungi are capable of growth, but more particularly the bacteria.
"Outlines of Dairy Bacteriology, 8th edition" by H. L. Russell
A loaf of bread may be leavened by yeast over night, but it requires thousands of years to leaven a planet with a new spiritual power.
"Child and Country" by Will Levington Comfort
You with your yeast from Germany!
"Merry-Garden and Other Stories" by Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch
For a little while he made things around them as lively as a pot of yeast.
"Sword and Pen" by John Algernon Owens
There is yeast in it, and bright skies without, if not within.
"The Battle with the Slum" by Jacob A. Riis
Milk yeast makes sweeter bread than any other kind of yeast, but it will not keep good long.
"The American Housewife" by Anonymous
It grips you when it starts to rise; it is the Fabled Yeast.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
When we're young we're full of yeast.
"The Prisoner" by Alice Brown
There is, however, one species of yeast, much used in some parts of the country, against which I have to enter my protest.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 14, No. 86, December, 1864" by Various
Cook is opening the yeast-jar, an expression of serious intent on his face.
"An Ocean Tramp" by William McFee
This is at first muddy, but clears of itself, and deposits a portion of yeast.
"Elements of Chemistry," by Antoine Lavoisier
Let cool and add one cake yeast dissolved in lukewarm water.
"Stevenson Memorial Cook Book" by Various
There is, however, one species of yeast, much used in some parts of the country, against which I have to enter my protest.
"Household Papers and Stories" by Harriet Beecher Stowe
Pour on boiling water; when lukewarm add dissolved yeast cake.
"Fifty-Two Sunday Dinners" by Elizabeth O. Hiller
In any case the presence of a yeast capable of directly fermenting milk sugar is not essential.
"The Bacillus of Long Life" by Loudon Douglas
***

In poetry:

Well fermented, weal and woe
Make soul's wine,--
And hereafter thou shalt know
How Life's bitter yeast below
Doth refine.
"The Mingled Cup" by Martin Farquhar Tupper
Before, behind, around, surge on
Those unknown Great, whose yeast,
Impermeant, ensures result,
Tho' Hope's own song had ceased.
"May Day" by Bernard O Dowd
Colder and louder blew the wind,
A gale from the Northeast,
The snow fell hissing in the brine,
And the billows frothed like yeast.
"The Wreck Of The Hesperus" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
An atom tossed in a chaos made
Of yeasting worlds, which bubble and foam.
Whence have I come?
What would be home?
I hear no answer. I am afraid!
"The Last Quarter Of The Moon" by Amy Lowell
There are many diseases,
That strike people's kneeses,
Scorflufus! is one by name
It comes from the East
Packed in bladders of yeast
So the Chinese must take half the blame.
"Scorflufus" by Spike Milligan
Should you hold your life dear,
Then the remedy's clear,
If you're offered some yeast - don't eat it!
Turn the offer down flat-
Don your travelling hat-
Put an egg in your boot - and beat it!
"Scorflufus" by Spike Milligan

In news:

Cranberries may potentially help scientists to prevent oral yeast infections, according to the findings of a lab study by researchers at Rutgers University and the University of Laval in Quebec, Canada.
Dust off your recipe box and put your thinking apron on: The National Festival of Breads seeks the best yeast bread recipes from home bakers throughout the United States.
In a large bowl, add beer, sugar and yeast.
Don't judge yeast flakes solely by appearance.
Dry yeast (about 2 1/4 tsp.
Dry yeast (about 2 1/4 tsp.).
Combine 2-1/2 cups of the flour and the yeast.
Named Adam, the van-sized robot came to scientific fame after autonomously investigating gene function in yeast.
The holiday baking season is under way, and that means a lot of home cooks will be trying out recipes for rolls and breads that include yeast among the ingredients.
Feared by winemakers, is the 'Brettanomyces' yeast good for brewers.
Ounce (1 packet) active dry yeast.
These yeast buns aren't at all difficult to make.
Why did this patient and her partner repeatedly suffer yeast infection in spite of treatment.
1 cake, pack or tablespoon of dry yeast.
In general, higher temperatures accelerate yeast activity and lower temperatures depress it.
***

In science:

To partially investigate the fidelity of deflated complexes of type A and N, we randomly sampled 25 such complexes from the final ppiTrim yeast dataset and examined the original publications associated with them.
ppiTrim: Constructing non-redundant and up-to-date interactomes
The number of yeast and UPS1 proteins found to be present in greater (⇑) and lesser (⇓) abundance in samples A-E relative to QC2 of the CPTAC data at FDR level 0.05.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
Density estimate of the distribution of ps for yeast proteins only of the A, C and E samples, tested against QC2, of the CPTAC data set.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
Figure 5 shows the distribution of p-values computed for the yeast proteins only of the A, C and E samples.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
Figure 6 shows the distribution of τs for the yeast proteins only in the A, C and E samples.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
To determine the origin of the positive shift for w, we stratified w by two factors, the total ion abundance of the yeast species, and the number of missing observations of the yeast species, both in the QC2 samples.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
The positive shift in the distribution of w for the yeast species, and τs for the yeast proteins, obviously correlates with the increasing concentration of the UPS1 proteins.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
Density estimate of the distribution of the Wilcoxon statistic w for yeast species stratified by (a) the total ion abundance (low abundance is ≤ the median; high abundance is > median) and (b) the total number of missing observations (0-5 and 6-12), both as measured in the QC2 samples.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
This is consistent with our hypothesis that ion competition is responsible for the positive shift in the distribution of w for the yeast species and, consequently, the positive shift in the distribution of τs for the yeast proteins as well.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
The Wilcoxons for yeast species in the positive cohort are centered at zero in sample A and shift slowly to more positive values as the UPS1 spike-in level increases.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
We hypothesized that this slow rightward shift is a result of ion competition outside the 2σ extent we assumed in assigning yeast species to the zero cohort.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
Schematic defining the distance between LC-MS features. dijk quantifies the time separation of the i’th yeast feature from the j ’th UPS1 feature in sample k (see Equation (5)).
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
The blue and red lines represent the 2σ extent of yeast and UPS1 features, respectively.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
Figure 9 shows the distribution of w for the yeast species in the A, C and E samples stratified by interference distance.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
The sample-dependent trends seen in these figures reveals that the abundance of yeast proteins decreases as a function of increasing UPS1 spike-in.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
***