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virulent

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj virulent infectious; having the ability to cause disease
    • adj virulent harsh or corrosive in tone "an acerbic tone piercing otherwise flowery prose","a barrage of acid comments","her acrid remarks make her many enemies","bitter words","blistering criticism","caustic jokes about political assassination, talk-show hosts and medical ethics","a sulfurous denunciation","a vitriolic critique"
    • adj virulent extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom "venomous snakes","a virulent insect bite"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Virulent Extremely poisonous or venomous; very active in doing injury. "A contagious disorder rendered more virulent by uncleanness."
    • Virulent Very bitter in enmity; actuated by a desire to injure; malignant; as, a virulent invective.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • virulent Full of virus; extremely poisonous or venomous.
    • virulent Due to the action of a virus: as, a virulent inoculation.
    • virulent Very bitter or spiteful; malignant: as, a virulent invective; a virulent libel.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adj Virulent vir′ū-lent full of poison: very active in injury: bitter in enmity: malignant
    • ***

Quotations

  • Gilbert Adair
    Gilbert Adair
    “We need cancer because, by the very fact of its insurability, it makes all other diseases, however virulent, not cancer.”
  • Simone Weil
    Simone%20Weil
    “The poison of skepticism becomes, like alcoholism, tuberculosis, and some other diseases, much more virulent in a hitherto virgin soil.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. virulentus, fr. virus, poison: cf. F. virulent,. See Virus
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. virulentusvirus, poison.

Usage

In literature:

So virulent were the citizens that they several times tried to rid themselves of their imperial enemy by assassination.
"Historical Tales, Vol 5 (of 15)" by Charles Morris
No class of men, indeed, have been more virulently and consistently abused than the landlords of England, and none with less justice.
"A Short History of English Agriculture" by W. H. R. Curtler
The pen-fever had seized upon Simms with great virulence and he followed his fate.
"Literary Hearthstones of Dixie" by La Salle Corbell Pickett
She is most virulent in the springtime.
"Myths of Babylonia and Assyria" by Donald A. Mackenzie
Marzio lacked courage, and his virulence boiled most hotly when he had least to fear for his personal safety.
"Marzio's Crucifix and Zoroaster" by F. Marion Crawford
Now the disease in Byzantium ran a course of four months, and its greatest virulence lasted about three.
"History of the Wars, Books I and II (of 8)" by Procopius
There was much bigotry, and much virulence.
"The English Church in the Eighteenth Century" by Charles J. Abbey and John H. Overton
The prejudice against Oscar Wilde showed itself virulently on all hands.
"Oscar Wilde, Volume 1 (of 2)" by Frank Harris
The presence of the enemy allays the most virulent of quarrels, temporarily at least.
"History of the United States" by Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard
Virulent = venena, malboniga.
"English-Esperanto Dictionary" by John Charles O'Connor and Charles Frederic Hayes
So this battle-royal in art commenced and raged with virulence.
"The Great German Composers" by George T. Ferris
The maid was on the step, cheapening fish with a virulent lady who had a sieve-full to dispose of.
"The House by the Church-Yard" by J. Sheridan Le Fanu
His efforts were not restricted to writing virulent articles.
"The Story of the Upper Canada Rebellion, Volume 1" by John Charles Dent
Dry gangrene is seldom dangerous, but the rapidity of its spread will indicate its virulence.
"Special Report on Diseases of the Horse" by United States Department of Agriculture
At the same time, the increasing frequency and virulence of small-pox are becoming only too evident.
"The Physical Life of Woman:" by Dr. George H Napheys
Howard hated Ralegh with a virulence not easily explicable, which appeared to be doubled by its abatement towards Cecil.
"Sir Walter Ralegh" by William Stebbing
A certain set of individuals calling themselves critics have attacked 'Lavengro' with much virulence and malice.
"The Romany Rye A Sequel to 'Lavengro'" by George Borrow
Even that least virulent of emotions, love, can destroy.
"What The Left Hand Was Doing" by Gordon Randall Garrett
I have had Thousands written against me, with Virulence and Scandal.
"A Dialogue Between Dean Swift and Tho. Prior, Esq." by Anonymous
He'd got the infernal disease in its most virulent form.
"Black Oxen" by Gertrude Franklin Horn Atherton
***

In poetry:

There was a Young Lady of Hull,
Who was chased by a virulent bull;
But she seized on a spade,
And called out, 'Who's afraid?'
Which distracted that virulent bull.
"Limerick: There was a Young Lady of Hull" by Edward Lear
Yes, season’d with your own remarks between,
Inflamed with so much virulence of spleen
That the mild town (to give the devil his due)
Ascribed the whole performance to a Jew.
"Reproof: A Satire." by Tobias Smollett

In news:

The virulence of the viral video.
Virulence of Swine Flu Is Not Yet Known.
The mutations appear to enhance the enzyme's activity, making the virus more virulent .
Nile virus emerges more virulent .
Hints of a more virulent, mutating West Nile virus emerge.
or of any possible association of new genetic variants with increased virulence .
HIV Appears Responsible for New Virulent Strains of Salmonella.
A nurse in Hamburg, Germany, on Wednesday tended a patient infected with a virulent strain of E.
American reporters who are posted in the Mideast say that after covering the most virulent anti-U.
White gay America is fond of treating homophobia in the Black community as if it is a more virulent strain of homophobia than in other communities.
An Egypt mob and a Libya attack are thought to have been sparked by a virulent anti-Islam YouTube video.
The actors themselves were misled about his plans for the movie, with the most virulently anti- Islamic content dubbed in over their lines later.
More research will be conducted to better understand the parasite 's genetics to more readily understand its virulence, transmission routes and other potential hosts.
Still, that parade hasn't been enough to quell RIM 's most virulent critics.
The worst part of waking up is a virulent hangover in your cup.
***

In science:

However, the mutation of other viruses into the virulent strain could appear in isolated areas where they are not introduced through direct contact.
Large Deviations for Processes in Random Environments with Jumps
The virulence of the external agents is measured by || ¯L(t)||1 (i.e., the sum rate of external infection).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
The bounds are based on the graph topology (in particular, diameter/conductance of appropriate subgraphs) and a lower bound Lmin (n) on the virulence (which can scale with the network size).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Now, to complete our system description, we term the quantity || ¯L(t)||1 as the long-range virulence at time t, i.e., the power of the infection to spread through long-range contact.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Upper Bounds for Specific Policies Our first main result is an upper-bound on the finish time (both in expectation and with high probability) of the homogeneous external virulence policy, or as we refer to it hereafter, the random spread policy, for a general graph G.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem 1 (Upper bound for Homogeneous External Virulence: Diameter version).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem 5 (Lower bound: d-dimensional grids, bounded long-range virulence).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem (Theorem 1: Upper bound for Homogeneous External Virulence: Diameter version).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Lmin (n), d(n) We conclude this section with the conductance-based upper bound on the finish time with random external-agents. n, the graph Gn admits a partition Gn = (cid:83)g(n) Theorem (Theorem 3: Upper Bound for Homogeneous External Virulence: Conductance version).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
Theorem (Theorem 5: Lower bound: d-dimensional grids, bounded long-range virulence).
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
For general graphs, we have provided upper bounds on the spreading time due to external-infection with bounded virulence for random and greedy infection policies; these bounds are in terms of the diameter and the conductance of the graph.
Epidemic Spreading with External Agents
This argument has lead to the expectation that parasites should evolve to a moderate level of virulence.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
One can expect that there is a relation between virulence and transmission: For very small virulence, the parasite density in the host is low, and so is the transmission rate.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
With increasing virulence, the transmission rate increases and can be expected to increase only slowly or to saturate when virulence becomes high.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Numerical simulation and analytical solution of special cases show that for s > 0 several strains can coexist in the population, and that all of them have a virulence larger than the ESS value found above for the case of single infection.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
***