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stop

Definitions

  • Log-Stop and Loader
    Log-Stop and Loader
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v stop prevent completion "stop the project","break off the negotiations"
    • v stop stop and wait, as if awaiting further instructions or developments "Hold on a moment!"
    • v stop hold back, as of a danger or an enemy; check the expansion or influence of "Arrest the downward trend","Check the growth of communism in South East Asia","Contain the rebel movement","Turn back the tide of communism"
    • v stop seize on its way "The fighter plane was ordered to intercept an aircraft that had entered the country's airspace"
    • v stop render unsuitable for passage "block the way","barricade the streets","stop the busy road"
    • v stop cause to stop "stop a car","stop the thief"
    • v stop come to a halt, stop moving "the car stopped","She stopped in front of a store window"
    • v stop interrupt a trip "we stopped at Aunt Mary's house","they stopped for three days in Florence"
    • v stop stop from happening or developing "Block his election","Halt the process"
    • v stop have an end, in a temporal, spatial, or quantitative sense; either spatial or metaphorical "the bronchioles terminate in a capillary bed","Your rights stop where you infringe upon the rights of other","My property ends by the bushes","The symphony ends in a pianissimo"
    • v stop put an end to a state or an activity "Quit teasing your little brother"
    • n stop a brief stay in the course of a journey "they made a stopover to visit their friends"
    • n stop the act of stopping something "the third baseman made some remarkable stops","his stoppage of the flow resulted in a flood"
    • n stop an obstruction in a pipe or tube "we had to call a plumber to clear out the blockage in the drainpipe"
    • n stop a restraint that checks the motion of something "he used a book as a stop to hold the door open"
    • n stop a mechanical device in a camera that controls size of aperture of the lens "the new cameras adjust the diaphragm automatically"
    • n stop (music) a knob on an organ that is pulled to change the sound quality from the organ pipes "the organist pulled out all the stops"
    • n stop a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations "in England they call a period a stop"
    • n stop a consonant produced by stopping the flow of air at some point and suddenly releasing it "his stop consonants are too aspirated"
    • n stop the event of something ending "it came to a stop at the bottom of the hill"
    • n stop a spot where something halts or pauses "his next stop is Atlanta"
    • n stop the state of inactivity following an interruption "the negotiations were in arrest","held them in check","during the halt he got some lunch","the momentary stay enabled him to escape the blow","he spent the entire stop in his seat"
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Stop Chamfering Stop Chamfering
why not Stop All Night why not Stop All Night
Si Almost Fainted when the Colonel Stopped 215 Si Almost Fainted when the Colonel Stopped 215
STOP THAT MAN! STOP THAT MAN STOP THAT MAN! STOP THAT MAN
Don't stop the plow to catch a mouse Don't stop the plow to catch a mouse
THE FARMER STOPPED TO SEE WHAT ALL THE ROW WAS ABOUT THE FARMER STOPPED TO SEE WHAT ALL THE ROW WAS ABOUT
The Donkey Rider Stopped The Donkey Rider Stopped
THE STOPPING OR REMOVAL OF A 'GRINDER THE STOPPING OR REMOVAL OF A 'GRINDER

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Our eyes are always the same size from birth, but our nose and ears. never stop growing
    • Stop (Mach) A device, or piece, as a pin, block, pawl, etc., for arresting or limiting motion, or for determining the position to which another part shall be brought.
    • Stop (Arch) A member, plain or molded, formed of a separate piece and fixed to a jamb, against which a door or window shuts. This takes the place, or answers the purpose, of a rebate. Also, a pin or block to prevent a drawer from sliding too far.
    • Stop A point or mark in writing or printing intended to distinguish the sentences, parts of a sentence, or clauses; a mark of punctuation. See Punctuation.
    • Stop (Mus) In the organ, one of the knobs or handles at each side of the organist, by which he can draw on or shut off any register or row of pipes; the register itself; as, the vox humana stop.
    • Stop (Phonetics) Some part of the articulating organs, as the lips, or the tongue and palate, closed so as to cut off the passage of breath or voice through the mouth and the nose (distinguished as a lip-stop, or a front-stop, etc., as in p t d, etc.), or so as to obstruct, but not entirely cut off, the passage, as in l n, etc.; also, any of the consonants so formed.
    • Stop That which stops, impedes, or obstructs; as obstacle; an impediment; an obstruction. "A fatal stop traversed their headlong course.""So melancholy a prospect should inspire us with zeal to oppose some stop to the rising torrent."
    • Stop The act of stopping, or the state of being stopped; hindrance of progress or of action; cessation; repression; interruption; check; obstruction. "It is doubtful . . . whether it contributed anything to the stop of the infection.""Occult qualities put a stop to the improvement of natural philosophy.""It is a great step toward the mastery of our desires to give this stop to them."
    • Stop (Mus) The closing of an aperture in the air passage, or pressure of the finger upon the string, of an instrument of music, so as to modify the tone; hence, any contrivance by which the sounds of a musical instrument are regulated.
    • Stop (Zoöl) The depression in the face of a dog between the skull and the nasal bones. It is conspicuous in the bulldog, pug, and some other breeds.
    • Stop (Opt) The diaphragm used in optical instruments to cut off the marginal portions of a beam of light passing through lenses.
    • Stop To arrest the progress of; to hinder; to impede; to shut in; as, to stop a traveler; to stop the course of a stream, or a flow of blood.
    • Stop To cease from any motion, or course of action. "Stop, while ye may, suspend your mad career!"
    • Stop To cease to go on; to halt, or stand still; to come to a stop. "He bites his lip, and starts; Stops on a sudden, looks upon the ground;
      Then lays his finger on his temple: strait
      Springs out into fast gait; then stops again."
    • Stop To close, as an aperture, by filling or by obstructing; as, to stop the ears; hence, to stanch, as a wound.
    • Stop To hinder from acting or moving; to prevent the effect or efficiency of; to cause to cease; to repress; to restrain; to suppress; to interrupt; to suspend; as, to stop the execution of a decree, the progress of vice, the approaches of old age or infirmity. "Whose disposition all the world well knows
      Will not be rubbed nor stopped ."
    • Stop (Naut) To make fast; to stopper.
    • Stop To obstruct; to render impassable; as, to stop a way, road, or passage.
    • Stop To point, as a composition; to punctuate. "If his sentences were properly stopped ."
    • Stop (Mus) To regulate the sounds of, as musical strings, by pressing them against the finger board with the finger, or by shortening in any way the vibrating part.
    • Stop To spend a short time; to reside temporarily; to stay; to tarry; as, to stop with a friend. "By stopping at home till the money was gone."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: If the liver ever stops working a person will die within 8 to 24 hours.
    • stop To close up, as a hole, passage, or cavity, by filling, stuffing, plugging, or otherwise obstructing; block up; choke: as, to stop a vent or a channel.
    • stop To make close or tight; close with or as with a compressible substance, or a lid or stopper: as, to stop a bottle with a cork; hence, to stanch.
    • stop To shut up; inclose; confine.
    • stop To hinder from progress or procedure; cause to cease moving, going, acting, working, or the like; impede; check; head off; arrest: as, to stop a car; to stop a ball; to stop a clock; to stop a thief.
    • stop To hold back, as from a specified course, purpose, end, or the like; restrain; hinder: followed by from (obsolete or dialectal of).
    • stop To prevent the continuance of; suppress; extinguish; bring to an end: as, to stop a leak.
    • stop To check or arrest by anticipation.
    • stop To keep back; withhold.
    • stop To cease from; discontinue; bring to a stop.
    • stop In musical instruments: Of the lute and viol classes, to press (a string) with the finger so as to shorten its vibrating length, and thus raise the pitch of the tone produced from it.
    • stop Of the wind group generally, to close (a finger-hole in the tube) so as to change the nodes of the vibrating column of air, and thus alter the pitch of the tone.
    • stop Of wind-instruments of the trumpet class, to insert the hand into (the bell) so as to shorten the length of the vibrating column of air, and thus to raise the pitch of the tone.
    • stop Nautical, to make fast with a small line: as, to stop a line to a harpoon-staff.
    • stop To put the stops, or marks of punctuation, in; point, as a written composition; punctuate.
    • stop In masonry, plastering, etc., to point or dress over (an imperfect or damaged place in a wall) by covering it with cement or plaster.
    • stop In horticulture, same as top.
    • stop To ward off; parry.
    • stop In galvanoplastic operations, to apply a varnish to (parts of a plate or object), to prevent the deposit of metal upon the varnished parts during immersion in the gilding or electroplating solution.
    • stop Theat., to cover (some of the teeth) with black wax, so as to make them invisible.
    • stop Synonyms and
    • stop To interrupt, block, blockade, barricade, intercept, end.
    • stop To suspend, intermit.
    • stop To check one's self; leave off; desist; stay; halt; come to a stand or stop, as in walking, speaking, or any other action or procedure.
    • stop To discontinue; come to an end; cease to be: as, the noise stopped; an annuity stops.
    • stop To make a halt or a stay of longer or shorter duration; tarry; remain.
    • stop To intercept, ward off, or parry a blow.
    • n stop The act of stopping, in any sense. A filling or closing up.
    • n stop An impeding or hindering; obstruction; stoppage.
    • n stop A pause; a stand; a halt.
    • n stop Termination; ending.
    • n stop A stay; a tarrying.
    • n stop A state of hesitation or uncertainty; a standstill.
    • n stop That which stops or hinders; especially, an obstacle or impediment; specifically, a weir.
    • n stop In musical instruments: Of the lute and viol classes, a pressure on a string so as to shorten its vibrating length, and raise the pitch of its tone.
    • n stop Of wind-instruments, the closing of a finger-hole in the tube so as to alter the pitch of its tone.
    • n stop Of wind-instruments of the trumpet class, the inserting of the hand into the bell so as to raise the pitch of the tone. Any lever or similar device for thus stopping a string or finger-hole.
    • n stop In an organ, a graduated set of pipes of the same kind, and giving tones of the same quality. A complete stop has at least one pipe for each digital of the keyboard to which it belongs; if a stop has less, it is called a partial stop; if more, it is called a compound stop or mixture-stop. The number of pipes constituting a stop varies according to the compass of the keyboard to which it belongs, the usual number being now sixty-one for manual keyboards, and either twenty-seven or thirty for pedal keyboards, while mixture-stops have between twice and five times as many. Stops are variously classified, as follows: As to general quality of tone, the principal qualities recognized being the organ-tone (as in the open diapason, the octave, the fifteenth, etc.), the flute-tone (as in the bourdon, the stopped diapason, the melodia, the flute, etc.), the string-tone (as in the viol da gamba, the violina, the dulciana, etc.), and the reed-tone (as in the oboe, the clarinet, the trumpet, etc.). The first three groups are also called five-stops, and the last reed-stops, from the construction of their pipes (see pipe, 2).
    • n stop Same as stop-knob.
    • n stop plural In the harpsichord, handles controlling levers by which the position of the jacks could be varied so as to alter the force or quality of the tones produced.
    • n stop A mark to indicate a stop or pause in reading; a mark of punctuation.
    • n stop In joinery, one of the pieces of wood nailed on the frame of a door to form the recess or rebate into which the door shuts.
    • n stop Nautical: A projection at the head of a lower mast, supporting the trestletrees.
    • n stop A bit of small line used to lash or fasten anything temporarily: as, hammock-stops, a wning-stops.
    • n stop In optics, a perforated diaphragm inserted between the two combinations of a double lens, or placed in front of a single lens, to intercept the extreme rays that disturb the perfection of the image. The practical effect of the stop is to increase the depth of the focus and sharpness of definition, but to diminish the illumination in the exact ratio of the diameter of the stop to that of the lens, and hence, in photography, to increase correspondingly the necessary time of exposure.
    • n stop In bookbinding, a small circular finishing-tool used by bookbinders to stop a line or fillet at its intersection with another line.
    • n stop In lace-manuf. (in the application of the Jacquard attachment described under loom, 2, to a laceframe), a point at which the different sets of warp-threads are concentrated or brought to a sort of focus, and which in the design of a pattern is taken as a basis for measurement in determining the distances the respective threads in the set must be moved to form the desired pattern. The movements of the mechanism are adjusted in accordance with these measurements.
    • n stop In phonetics, an alphabetic sound involving a complete closure of the mouth-organs; a mute; a check.
    • n stop The concavity of the profile of a dog's face, specially marked in the bulldog and pug.
    • n stop In fencing, the action whereby a fencer, instead of parrying a blow and then thrusting, allows a careless opponent to run on his sword-point. He may hasten the stop by extending the sword-arm. (See stop-thrust.) The stop is discouraged in fencing as a game, since much use of it shortens the passages, and destroys combinations of feints, disengagements, coupés, etc.
    • n stop In lute-playing: A chord followed by a pause.
    • n stop A chord in producing which all the strings are stopped by the fingers.
    • n stop Synonyms Stop, Cessation, Stay, Suspension, Intermission, Pause, Rest. These words may denote the failure or interruption of forward motion or of activity. Stop is an energetic word, but the most general: it is opposed to going forward or going on; cessation may be temporary or final, and is opposed to continuance; a stay is a stop viewed as a lingering or delay: as, a short stay in the place; or, as a legal term, simply a stop: as, a stay of proceedings; suspension is a complete but presumably temporary stop: as, a suspension of work or pay; intermission is a strictly temporary stop; pause is a brief stop, in full expectation of going on; rest is a stop for refreshment from weariness.
    • n stop A bucket; a pail; a small well-bucket; a milk-pail.
    • n stop A Middle English form of stoop.
    • stop See to stop down a lens, under stop, transitive verb
    • n stop In games such as new market and pope-Joan, a card which is left in the stock and stops the run of a sequence which is played. Certain named cards are sometimes arbitrarily agreed on for stops.
    • n stop In mech., an obstacle, such as a pin, peg, or block, placed so as to limit in a definite manner the movement of any part of a machine or instrument.
    • n stop In wrestling, a counter to any particular hold.
    • n stop In boxing, a guard that prevents a blow from reaching home.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: If the sun stopped shining suddenly, it would take eight minutes for people on earth to be aware of the fact.
    • v.t Stop stop to stuff or close up: to obstruct: to render impassable: to hinder from further motion, progress, effect, or change: to restrain, repress, suppress, suspend: to intercept: to apply musical stops to: to regulate the sounds of a stringed instrument by shortening the strings with the fingers:
    • v.i Stop to cease going forward: to cease from any motion or action, to stay, tarry: to leave off: to be at an end: to ward off a blow:—pr.p. stop′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. stopped
    • n Stop act of stopping: state of being stopped: hinderance: obstacle: interruption:
    • v.t Stop to close or secure with a stopper
    • v.t Stop stop (naut.) to make fast
    • n Stop (mus.) one of the vent-holes in a wind instrument, or the place on the wire of a stringed instrument, by the stopping or pressing of which certain notes are produced: a mark used in punctuation: an alphabetic sound involving a complete closure of the mouth-organs: a wooden batten on a door or window-frame against which it closes: a stop-thrust in fencing
    • ***

Quotations

  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “The fellow who does things that count, doesn't usually stop to count them.”
  • Dennis Weaver
    Dennis Weaver
    “To get what you want, STOP doing what isn't working.”
  • Frank Burford
    Frank Burford
    “Failure does not count. If you accept this, you'll be successful. What causes most people to fail is that after one failure, they'll stop trying.”
  • Palmer Sondreal
    Palmer Sondreal
    “Happiness is never stopping to think if you are.”
  • Groucho Marx
    Groucho%20Marx
    “If you've heard this story before, don't stop me, because I'd like to hear it again.”
  • Jon Kabat Zinn
    Jon Kabat Zinn
    “You can't stop the waves, but you can learn to surf.”

Idioms

Buck stops here - The buck stops here is used to say that this is the point where responsibility lies or the person who is responsible.
***
Don't stop and kick at every dog that barks at you - (USA) If we stop to kick at every dog that barks at us we will never arrive at our destination in life, because we are obsessed with righting insignifigant wrongs that should have no more effect on us then a dog that barks as we walk by.
***
Pull out all the stops - If you pull out all the stops, you do everything you possibly can to achieve the result you want.
***
Stop a clock - A face that could (or would) stop a clock is very ugly indeed.
***
Stop cold - To stop suddenly out of surprise.
***
Stop on a dime - (USA) If something like a vehicle stops on a dime, it stops very quickly and accurately.
***
Stop the music - 'Stop the music' is a way of telling people to stop everything that they're doing as something important has happened or become known.
***
Whistle-stop tour - A whistle-stop tour is when someone visits a number of places quickly, not stopping for long.
***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. stoppen, AS. stoppian,in comp.); akin to LG. & D. stoppen, G. stopfen, Icel. stoppa, Sw. stoppa, Dan. stoppe,; all probably fr. LL. stopare, stupare, fr. L. stuppa, the coarse part of flax, tow, oakum. Cf. Estop Stuff Stupe a fomentation

Usage

In literature:

He has no thought of stopping, or turning aside; nor would he do so for any small game.
"The Death Shot" by Mayne Reid
He stopped in front of a chair where a very thin young lady was reclining languidly.
"The Dude Wrangler" by Caroline Lockhart
Mates, are we to go, or are we to stop and get abused by this ignorant fellow?
"In the Wilds of Africa" by W.H.G. Kingston
It might stop; but it would not stop.
"The Bishop of Cottontown" by John Trotwood Moore
At noon they stopped for lunch.
"The Camp in the Snow" by William Murray Graydon
Suddenly Estelle stopped, panting.
"Chatterbox, 1906" by Various
It's occurred to me that a good way to stop these repairs would be to stop us.
"Space Platform" by Murray Leinster
You wouldn't stop crying.
"Nobody's Boy" by Hector Malot
He stopped at a street corner and looked up and down both streets.
"Stubble" by George Looms
We drove the car on ahead, stopped it across the road, and jumped out to stop him.
"At Good Old Siwash" by George Fitch
They could not stop talking; nor could the snow stop falling.
"The Goose Man" by Jacob Wassermann
Stop it, stop it; I haven't slept for thinking of it.
"The Manxman A Novel - 1895" by Hall Caine
We stopped about six or eight feet from the edge of the hole; the heat was uncomfortably intense.
"The Fire People" by Ray Cummings
I don't know why you stopped me from gettin' after him.
"Prescott of Saskatchewan" by Harold Bindloss
One raised a tomahawk aloft, but another stopped the arm in its descent.
"The Riflemen of the Ohio" by Joseph A. Altsheler
Any sail with its clues stopped so as when veered away over the quarter to make a stop-water when veering in emergency.
"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth
He stopped; went on again; stopped; went on again.
"Jim Spurling, Fisherman" by Albert Walter Tolman
The acid formed a thin layer of lead sulphate on each plate which soon stopped further action on the lead.
"The Automobile Storage Battery" by O. A. Witte
I have been told that you have stopped writing, but no one has told me why.
"Friars and Filipinos" by Jose Rizal
The R. A. tension may stop them!...
"Astounding Stories, May, 1931" by Various
***

In poetry:

"Stop gunning black boy,
And we'll let you go."
"I thank you very kindly,"
Said my ole boy Joe.
"The Ballad Of Joe Meek" by Sterling A Brown
By many a cell they past,
And stopped at length before
A portal, bolted fast:
The man unlocked the door.
"The Troubadour" by William Schwenck Gilbert
"So I stop beside the wall
Every time I pass here,
And I blow his favorite call
To him under grass here."
"The Postilion" by Nikolaus Lenau
Still of my Lalage I'll sing,
Where'er the Fates may chance to drop me;
And nobody nor anything
Shall stop me.
"Advice" by Franklin Pierce Adams
"Stop, stop, John Gilpin! &mdash:Here's the house!"
—They all at once did cry;
"The dinner waits, and we are tired:"
Said Gilpin — "So am I!"
"The Diverting History Of John Gilpin, Showing How He Went Farther Than He Intended, And Came Safe Ho" by William Cowper
The first one was ugly, thin and tragic,
Loving darkness of the garden lane,
Falling Leaf, the child of gloomy magic,
Whose one word could fully stop the rain.
"Only Serpents" by Nikolai Stepanovich Gumilev

In news:

BEALLSVILLE — Coal miners at the American Energy Corp. Century Mine said they want President Barack Obama to stop what they term "the war on coal" — and to stop spreading "mistruths" about them.
Dozens of supposedly non-stop flights from Europe to the US are being forced to stop along the way to refuel.
BEALLSVILLE — Coal miners at the American Energy Corp. Century Mine said they want President Barack Obama to stop what they term âthe war on coalã — and to stop spreading âmistruthsã about them.
Coal miners at the American Energy Corp. Century Mine said they want President Barack Obama to stop what they term the war on coal - and to stop spreading mistruths about them.
The Knicks have decided to stop several advertisements that bus stops and various places around New York City.
No one was hurt, and apparently it was the driver of the SUV's fault because there is a stop sign posted at the intersection of the road and the runway – and last time we checked, airplanes can't stop mid-flight and give way to cars.
The team stopped at the Flying J truck stop in Albuquerque, at which point Holloway got out of the truck.
I've been told that I have a personality that won't stop, and I also have a tail that never stops - wagging, that is.
The way to stop puppy mills and backyard breeders is to stop buying the puppies they produce.
It's one of the simplest rules of the road: If you see a Stop sign, stop.
On Nov 9, the ANC2E Commissioners released a joint motion to reinstate two Circulator bus stops in Georgetown: the M St, NW stop between Wisconsin Ave and 31st St, and the P St stop on Wisconsin Ave, both northbound and southbound.
The Denison Police Department says that most people do stop for school buses, and that they commonly patrol near bus stop s.
There are about 500 bus stop s in Abilene and hundreds depend on the city bus to get around each day, but many of these stops are missing shelters and in most cases, even benches.
The check and trophy presentation road trip made it's final stop for 2012 on Wednesday May 23rd with a stop in Sampson County, North Carolina.
Alex Donaldson, 20, fled an officer after he tried to stop Donaldson for running a stop sign, police said.
***

In science:

Given a stopping time ν define a stopping time ν ′ as follows: ν ′ = τ over {µ > τ }, and ν ′ = ν otherwise.
Stopping games in continuous time
Stop the walk when it reaches the origin, if it has not been stopped previously.
Asymptotic Behavior of Random Heaps
So, in Appendix A, we will deal with stopped filtrations and stopped processes.
Stability of solutions of BSDEs with random terminal time
It is clear that (W n ) is a sequence of (F n )-martingales, τ is a F -stopping time and (τ n )n is a sequence of (F n )-stopping times.
Stability of solutions of BSDEs with random terminal time
Let (τ n ) be a sequence of F n -stopping times that converges in probability to a F -stopping time τ .
Stability of solutions of BSDEs with random terminal time
Let (τ n ) be a sequence of (F n )-stopping times that converges in probability to a F -stopping time τ . −→ X τ for the Skorokhod topology and that F n w−→ F .
Stability of solutions of BSDEs with random terminal time
Let (τ n ) be a sequence of F n -stopping times that converges in probability to a F -stopping time τ .
Stability of solutions of BSDEs with random terminal time
In the case of charged leptons, the stopping time is now τstop ∼ 10−11 sec.
Spectra of neutrinos from dark matter annihilations
The quantity τstop is defined as τstop = τint/(1 − Z ) where Z = xi zj and τint is the interaction time defined in eq. (6).
Spectra of neutrinos from dark matter annihilations
By Skorokhod embedding, there is a stopping time τ such that for any standard Brownian motion (i.e., starting from zero), the stopped process has the distribution of Y − E(Y ).
Symmetrization of Bernoulli
We also give some results concerning the “spatially local” asymptotics of the distribution of M, the maximum of the stopped random walk for various stopping times, and various bounds.
On the exact distributional asymptotics for the supremum of a random walk with increments in a class of light-tailed distributions
We also present results for the (spatially) local asymptotics for M, the asymptotics for the maximum of the stopped random walk (for various stopping times), and we give some bounds.
On the exact distributional asymptotics for the supremum of a random walk with increments in a class of light-tailed distributions
The results of Theorem 3 may also be extended to random time horizons (with uniformity in all stopping times σ ≥ 1 a.s.) We give a result for any a.s. finite stopping time σ such that Sσ ≤ 0 a.s.
On the exact distributional asymptotics for the supremum of a random walk with increments in a class of light-tailed distributions
Since the stopping time mt/a2 is bounded from above by t/a2, we can apply a stopping time theorem and say that E (Mm ) ≤ E (M1 ) ≤ 1.
Copolymer at selective interfaces and pinning potentials: weak coupling limits
We would also have to count loops and multiple edges created after stopping (i.e., in the core), for example, by stopping the processes in Mn but letting Nn continue, with half-edges being paired by a suitable process until none are left.
Asymptotic normality of the $k$-core in random graphs
***