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stomach

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • v stomach put up with something or somebody unpleasant "I cannot bear his constant criticism","The new secretary had to endure a lot of unprofessional remarks","he learned to tolerate the heat","She stuck out two years in a miserable marriage"
    • v stomach bear to eat "He cannot stomach raw fish"
    • n stomach an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion
    • n stomach the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis
    • n stomach an appetite for food "exercise gave him a good stomach for dinner"
    • n stomach an inclination or liking for things involving conflict or difficulty or unpleasantness "he had no stomach for a fight"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: A starfish can turn its stomach inside out
    • Stomach (Anat) An enlargement, or series of enlargements, in the anterior part of the alimentary canal, in which food is digested; any cavity in which digestion takes place in an animal; a digestive cavity. See Digestion, and Gastric juice, under Gastric.
    • Stomach Hence appetite in general; inclination; desire. "He which hath no stomach to this fight,
      Let him depart."
    • Stomach Pride; haughtiness; arrogance. "He was a man
      Of an unbounded stomach ."
    • Stomach The desire for food caused by hunger; appetite; as, a good stomach for roast beef.
    • v. i Stomach To be angry.
    • Stomach To bear without repugnance; to brook.
    • Stomach To resent; to remember with anger; to dislike. "The lion began to show his teeth, and to stomach the affront.""The Parliament sit in that body . . . to be his counselors and dictators, though he stomach it."
    • Stomach Violence of temper; anger; sullenness; resentment; willful obstinacy; stubbornness. "Stern was his look, and full of stomach vain.""This sort of crying proceeding from pride, obstinacy, and stomach, the will, where the fault lies, must be bent."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: A cow has four compartments in its stomach
    • n stomach The throat; the gullet; the mouth.
    • n stomach A more or less sac-like part of the body where food is digested. In the lowest animals any part of the sarcode or protoplasmic substance of the body is capable of digesting food, and forms during the process a temporary stomach, as in an amœba. In many infusorial animalcules special vacuoles containing food are formed. These are inconstant both in number and in position, whence Ehrenberg's name, Polygastrica, for these organisms. In the highest protozoans, which have a definite oral or ingestive area, there is likewise a more or less fixed digestive tract, constituting a stomach. A few of the metazoans have no true digestion, and consequently no stomach; such are the parenchymatous or anenterous worms, which imbibe or soak in nutriment already elaborated in the tissues of the host of which they are parasites. But the vast majority of animals above the protozoans have an intestinal digestive tract the whole or a part of which may properly be called a stomach. In most of these, again, a definite stomach exists as a specialized, usually dilated, part of the alimentary canal, in which food is subjected to a certain degree of digestion subsequent to mastication and insalivation and prior to further digestive changes which go on in the intestine. Among vertebrates more than one section of the alimentary canal is called a stomach, and many vertebrates have more than one. Thus, in birds there are a true glandular stomach, the proventriculus, in which the esophagus ends, and a muscular or grinding stomach, the gizzard or gigerium. In mammals the stomach always extends from the end of the gullet to the beginning of the gut. It is of extremely variable size and shape. Kinds of mammalian stomachs sometimes distinguished are the simple, as in man, the carnivores, etc.; the complex or plurilocular stomach, as in various marsupials, rodents, some monkeys, etc.; and the compound or pluripartite. The last is confined to the ruminants. (See Ruminantia.) In man the stomach is the most dilated and most distensible part of the alimentary canal. It occupies parts of the left hypochondriac and epigastric regions of the abdomen, immediately within the abdominal walls, below the diaphragm and partly under the liver, to the right of the spleen, and above the transverse colon. In form it is irregularly conoidal, and curved upon itself. When moderately distended, it is about 12 inches long and 4 wide; it weighs 3 or 4 ounces. But the size, shape, and hence the anatomical relations, vary greatly in different individuals and in different states of distention. It begins where the gullet ends, at the esophageal or cardiac orifice, and ends at the pyloric orifice, where the duodenum begins. From the cardiac orifice the stomach bulges to the left in a great cul-de-sac, the fundus cardiacus, or cardiac end, in contact with the spleen, and from this greatest caliber the organ lessens in diameter with a sweep to the right. The lesser curvature or short border of the stomach, between the cardiac and pyloric orifices, is uppermost, and is connected with the liver by the lesser or gastrohepatic omentum. The greater curvature or long border of the stomach is opposite the other, between the same two points, and gives attachment to the great or gastrocolic omentum. These two curvatures separate the anterior and posterior surfaces. The stomach is held in place by folds of peritoneum, the gastrocolic, gastrohepatic, gastrosplenic, and gastrophrenic omenta, the last of which gives it most fixity. The arteries of the stomach are the gastric (a branch from the celiac axis), the pyloric and right gastro-epiploic branches of the hepatic, the left gastro-epiploic, and short branches from the splenic artery. The veins end in the splenic, superior mesenteric, and portal veins. The numerous lymphatics consist of a deep set and a superficial set. The nerves are the terminal branches of both pneumogastrics and many branches from the sympathetic system. The coats of the stomach are four—serous, muscular, submucous, and mucous. The serous layer is the peritoneum, which covers the whole organ on both its surfaces, and is reflected away from it along each of its curvatures. The muscular coat includes three sets of fibers—longitudinal, circular, and oblique, the last chiefly limited to the cardia. The submucous coat is simply the connective tissue between the muscular layer and the mucous membrane lining the stomach. This mucous membrane is the so-called “coat” of the stomach. It is thick, pinkish, reddish, or brownish, with a soft velvety surface, thrown into longitudinal folds or rugæ when the organ is contracted. Studding the surface of the mucous membrane are numberless depressions or alveoli of polygonal tending to hexagonal form, to of an inch in diameter; these are the enlarged mouths of the tubular gastric glands, which secrete the gastric juice by the action of which gastric digestion is effected. Two kinds of these follicles are distinguished by their microscopic structure—the pyloric and the cardiac. The former are found chiefly at and near the pyloric end, the latter most typical at the cardiac, and there are intermediate forms in intermediate regions. The epithelium lining the mucous membrane and its alveoli is of the kind called columnar. Besides the four coats above described, a fifth, a layer of involuntary muscular fibers between the mucous membrane and the submucous layer, is distinguished as the muscularis mucosæ. The digestive activity of the stomach is intermittent, and depends upon the stimulus which the presence of food occasions. The muscular arrangement is such that food is continually rolled about, so that every part of the mass is submitted to the action of the gastric juice. In the stomach the proteids are converted into albumins and peptones by the pepsin, milk is curdled by the rennet-ferment, the gelatiniferous tissues are dissolved, and other less important changes are effected. See also cuts under alimentary, Asteroidea, Appendicularia, Dibranchiata, Doliolidæ, intestine, peritoneum, Plumatella, plutcus, Protula, Pulmonata, Pycnogonida, Ruminantia, Salpa, Tragulus, and Tunicata.
    • n stomach The digestive person or alimentary zooid of a compound polyp. See gasterozooid.
    • n stomach In most insects of the orders Lepidoptera, Diptera, and some Hymenoptera, a bladder-like expansion of the esophagus, which can be dilated at the will of the insect; the sucking-stomach, by means of which the nectar of flowers or other liquid is sucked up, as water is drawn into a syringe. In mandibulate insects the ingluvies or crop takes the place of the sucking-stomach, and nearly all insects have two true stomachs, called proventriculus and ventriculus.
    • n stomach Appetite; desire or relish for food: as, to have a good stomach for one's meals.
    • n stomach Hence Relish; taste; inclination; liking: as, to have no stomach for controversy.
    • n stomach Disposition. Spirit; temper; heart.
    • n stomach Compassion; pity.
    • n stomach Courage; spirit.
    • n stomach Pride; haughtiness; conceit.
    • n stomach Spleen; anger; choler; resentment; sullenness.
    • stomach To encourage; hearten.
    • stomach To hate; resent; remember or regard with anger or resentment.
    • stomach To put up with; bear without open resentment or opposition: as, to stomach an affront.
    • stomach To turn the stomach of; disgust.
    • stomach To be or become angry.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The food that is digested in your stomach is called "chyme."
    • n Stomach stum′ak the strong muscular bag into which the food passes when swallowed, and where it is principally digested: the cavity in any animal for the digestion of its food: appetite, relish for food, inclination generally: disposition, spirit, courage, pride, spleen
    • v.t Stomach to brook or put up with: to turn the stomach of: to resent
    • ***

Quotations

  • St. Jerome
    St. Jerome
    “A fat stomach never breeds fine thoughts.”
  • St. Jerome
    St. Jerome
    “When the stomach is full, it is easy to talk of fasting.”
  • Euripides
    Euripides
    “When a man's stomach is full it makes no difference whether he is rich or poor.”
  • Saadi
    Saadi
    “He who is a slave to his stomach seldom worships God.”
  • Proverb
    Proverb
    “A hungry stomach has no ears.”
  • Boris Pasternak
    Boris Pasternak
    “That's metaphysics, my dear fellow. It's forbidden me by my doctor, my stomach won't take it.”

Idioms

Butterflies in your stomach - The nervous feeling before something important or stressful is known as butterflies in your stomach.
***
Cast iron stomach - A person with a cast iron stomach can eat or drink anything without any ill effects.
***
Eyes are bigger than one's stomach - If someone's eyes are bigger than their stomach, they are greedy and take on more than they can consume or manage.
***
Your belly button is bigger than your stomach - If your belly button is bigger than your stomach, you take on more responsibilities than you can handle.
***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. stomak, F. estomac, L. stomachus, fr. Gr. sto`machos stomach, throat, gullet, fr. sto`ma a mouth, any outlet or entrance

Usage

In literature:

The stomach has been removed, to show the looping anastomosis of these vessels around the superior and inferior borders of the stomach.
"Surgical Anatomy" by Joseph Maclise
He felt sick at his stomach and lifted his hand from the drill, expecting the steam to be shut off.
"Still Jim" by Honoré Willsie Morrow
Say anythin' to him, an' the stomach takes it up; say anythin' to the stomach, an' he takes it up.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 14, No. 85, November, 1864" by Various
In the course of the last year her legs swelled, and she felt great fulness about her stomach.
"An Account of the Foxglove and some of its Medical Uses" by William Withering
Think of treating any disease of the stomach with the famous stomach bitters containing 44 per cent.
"The Eugenic Marriage, Vol. 3 (of 4)" by W. Grant Hague
Frank felt the fingers of spasm taking hold of his stomach.
"The Planet Strappers" by Raymond Zinke Gallun
He was like a man who gets up from the table with a full stomach, after having sat down at it fearing lest he starve to death.
"The Goose Man" by Jacob Wassermann
My stomach sticks to my ribs.
"Blackbeard: Buccaneer" by Ralph D. Paine
In the abdomen, are the stomach, the liver, and some other organs.
"Child's Health Primer For Primary Classes" by Jane Andrews
My head swam with dizziness, the sweat started from my brow, and I felt sick both at the heart and in the stomach.
"The Boy Tar" by Mayne Reid
Frank ran his nose over the food, but his stomach revolted.
"Frank of Freedom Hill" by Samuel A. Derieux
He let himself carefully over the bank on his stomach.
"The Huntress" by Hulbert Footner
In some cases, the odor arising from caries is combined with that of the stomach.
"The Ladies Book of Useful Information" by Anonymous
I wondered if they could carry snow in their stomachs as well as rain.
"Fairy Prince and Other Stories" by Eleanor Hallowell Abbott
But I don't see how any young girl can stomach the life at Clinch's.
"The Flaming Jewel" by Robert W. Chambers
THE STOMACH is the mainspring of our system.
"The Cook's Oracle; and Housekeeper's Manual" by William Kitchiner
He turned over on his stomach and bunched his pillow up more comfortably.
"The Electronic Mind Reader" by John Blaine
I'll do as the devil, or my stomach, guides me.
"The One-Way Trail" by Ridgwell Cullum
Distress in the stomach and pain in the head removed.
"Vegetable Diet: As Sanctioned by Medical Men, and by Experience in All Ages" by William Andrus Alcott
The nostrils, the mouth, and the stomach afford examples.
"A Treatise on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene (Revised Edition)" by Calvin Cutter
***

In poetry:

Who hath courage? Not the sober,
Or untempted one,
Who hath never had his stomach
Eaten out by rum.
"Who Hath The Courage?" by Benjamin Cutler Clark
But, alas! I never dream such things,
And when I jump and wake
As an oozy ogre clutches me—
It's just a stomach ache!
"Dreams" by John Chipman Farrar
'Twas by that tail she held him down,
And presently she spread
The creamy lather on his back,
His stomach, and his head.
"The Ballad Of The Taylor Pup" by Eugene Field
He says that a woman of my plaint complaining,
If she was a woman at all half discreet,
Would shudder to think every day she is maiming
Her stomach with trash, and such stuff as we eat!
"Mrs. Merdle Discourseth Of Hygiene And Fish Sauce" by Horatio Alger Jr
Fame is a food that dead men eat,—
I have no stomach for such meat.
In little light and narrow room,
They eat it in the silent tomb,
With no kind voice of comrade near
To bid the banquet be of cheer.
"Fame Is A Food That Dead Men Eat" by Henry Austin Dobson
Alas! quoth the Squire, howe'er sumptuous the treat,
Parbleu! I shall have little stomach to eat;
I should therefore esteem it great favour and grace
Would you be so kind as to go in my place.
Derry down, down, hey derry down.
"The Thief And Cordelier. A Ballad" by Matthew Prior

In news:

Clostridum Difficile-Associated Diarrhea (CDAD) Can be Associated With Stomach Acid Drugs.
That's a lot to stomach -- no matter who you are.
You can't drink milk because it gives you an upset stomach.
Lots of things are hard to do on an empty stomach, and thinking is foremost among them.
At around lunchtime Friday afternoon, I was working on a blog post when when my stomach began to rumble.
The singer was hospitalized last week with what was originally thought to be the stomach flu and painful ulcers.
A Bondurant man is temporarily barred from bars after he admitted to stealing garnishes and kicking a bartender in the stomach.
Stomach contents reveal dangers of 'industrial' dining.
You must be 16 or older to experience Bluffton's newest stomach-lurching ride.
"This makes me sick to my stomach," actress says.
After winning a biggest-loser contest at her church, Myra Garcia of Trenton was dismayed when her stomach started growing for no reason this year.
Do you get knots in your stomach when you discuss salary, rewards, and benefits with your team.
Many states around the country have launched antitobacco campaigns, but none has captured the imagination--or turned the stomachs--of television and radio audiences like the one sponsored by the Arizona Department of Health Services.
On this cool late August afternoon, stomachs full of barbecue fare, they just wanted to run.
Ignatius College Prep School St Ignatius closes due to stomach flu outbreak.
***

In science:

She starts to drink milk and eat some fruit and cereal, when her Memex vibrates with a reminder message saying that the last time she ate fruit on the day of a training session, her stomach felt sick and she couldn’t run beyond 1.5 miles.
Human Information Processing with the Personal Memex
Figure 9: The frog, the baby and the stomach (dynamical view, best evolved shapes, target contour superimposed).
Epigenetic Tracking, a Method to Generate Arbitrary Shapes By Using Evolutionary-Developmental Techniques
In the lower part the development sequence of the stomach.
Epigenetic Tracking, a Method to Generate Arbitrary Shapes By Using Evolutionary-Developmental Techniques
Figures 7-11 show the results of experiments conducted with nine black-and-white targets (the horse, the couple, the hand, the dolphin, the map of Britain, the foot, the frog, the baby, the stomach) and two experiments conducted with colour targets (the french flag and the head).
Epigenetic Tracking, a Method to Generate Arbitrary Shapes By Using Evolutionary-Developmental Techniques
Fukuda Y, Bamba H, Okui M. et al. Helicobacter pylori infection increases mucosal permeability of the stomach and intestine.
Model of pathogenesis of psoriasis. Part 1. Systemic psoriatic process
Sequence analysis revealed that several identical amino-acid substitutions had been made in the conventional lysozyme producing the lysozyme found in the stomach of both groups of mammals [241].
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Unfortunately, I could not stomach coffee and thus missed induction into the super world.
Phenomenology using lattice QCD
Fortunately for me, Mother Nature invented too late the trick to produce males without mouth and stomach, suited only as fertilization machines with a high profit-to-cost ratio.
The Penna Model of Biological Aging
Bacteria also encounter viscoelastic fluids: The ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori swims through mucus lining the stomach [259], and spirochetes move through the connective tissue of the host during infection [260].
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
Living dangerously: how helicobacter pylori survives in the human stomach.
The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms
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