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shell

Definitions

  • The shell hole Central
    The shell hole Central
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v shell remove the husks from "husk corn"
    • v shell remove from its shell or outer covering "shell the legumes","shell mussels"
    • v shell come out better in a competition, race, or conflict "Agassi beat Becker in the tennis championship","We beat the competition","Harvard defeated Yale in the last football game"
    • v shell use explosives on "The enemy has been shelling us all day"
    • v shell look for and collect shells by the seashore
    • v shell hit the pitches of hard and regularly "He shelled the pitcher for eight runs in the first inning"
    • v shell fall out of the pod or husk "The corn shelled"
    • v shell create by using explosives "blast a passage through the mountain"
    • n shell hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles
    • n shell the hard largely calcareous covering of a mollusc or a brachiopod
    • n shell a metal sheathing of uniform thickness (such as the shield attached to an artillery piece to protect the gunners)
    • n shell ammunition consisting of a cylindrical metal casing containing an explosive charge and a projectile; fired from a large gun
    • n shell the housing or outer covering of something "the clock has a walnut case"
    • n shell a very light narrow racing boat
    • n shell a rigid covering that envelops an object "the satellite is covered with a smooth shell of ice"
    • n shell the exterior covering of a bird's egg
    • n shell the hard usually fibrous outer layer of some fruits especially nuts
    • n shell the material that forms the hard outer covering of many animals
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Caught by a star shell Caught by a star shell
Showing ornate shell-shaped, floral and leaf patterns, and figures Showing ornate shell-shaped, floral and leaf patterns, and figures
A 17th-century lime kiln excavated at Jamestown. In it oyster shells from the James River were burned for making lime. The iron hoops which supported the arched top of the kiln buckled from the intense heat A 17th-century lime kiln excavated at Jamestown. In it oyster shells from the James River were burned for making...
Making lime from oyster shells in a kiln, about 1625. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.) Making lime from oyster shells in a kiln, about 1625. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.)
Julia sings her song into the shell Julia sings her song into the shell
Alonzo listens to the song in the shell Alonzo listens to the song in the shell
The prince waits on the Lady of the Shell The prince waits on the Lady of the Shell
Group showing a starfish attacking an oyster; soft shelled clams; hermit crabs; fiddler crabs, etc Group showing a starfish attacking an oyster; soft shelled clams; hermit crabs; fiddler crabs, etc

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Macadamia nuts are not sold in their shells because it takes 300 pounds per square inch of pressure to break the shell
    • Shell A case or cartridge containing a charge of explosive material, which bursts after having been thrown high into the air. It is often elevated through the agency of a larger firework in which it is contained.
    • Shell A coarse kind of coffin; also, a thin interior coffin inclosed in a more substantial one.
    • Shell A concave rough cast-iron tool in which a convex lens is ground to shape.
    • Shell A gouge bit or shell bit.
    • Shell A hard outside covering, as of a fruit or an animal.
    • Shell (Mil) A hollow projectile, of various shapes, adapted for a mortar or a cannon, and containing an explosive substance, ignited with a fuse or by percussion, by means of which the projectile is burst and its fragments scattered. See Bomb.
    • Shell A light boat the frame of which is covered with thin wood or with paper; as, a racing shell .
    • Shell A pod.
    • Shell A torpedo.
    • Shell An engraved copper roller used in print works.
    • Shell An instrument of music, as a lyre, -- the first lyre having been made, it is said, by drawing strings over a tortoise shell. "When Jubal struck the chorded shell ."
    • Shell Any slight hollow structure; a framework, or exterior structure, regarded as not complete or filled in; as, the shell of a house.
    • Shell Hence, by extension, any mollusks having such a covering.
    • Shell Something similar in form or action to an ordnance shell;
    • Shell The case which holds the powder, or charge of powder and shot, used with breechloading small arms.
    • Shell The covering, or outside part, of a nut; as, a hazelnut shell .
    • Shell The hard calcareous or chitinous external covering of mollusks, crustaceans, and some other invertebrates. In some mollusks, as the cuttlefishes, it is internal, or concealed by the mantle. Also, the hard covering of some vertebrates, as the armadillo, the tortoise, and the like.
    • Shell The hard covering of an egg.
    • Shell The husks of cacao seeds, a decoction of which is often used as a substitute for chocolate, cocoa, etc.
    • Shell (Naut) The outer frame or case of a block within which the sheaves revolve.
    • Shell To be disengaged from the ear or husk; as, wheat or rye shells in reaping.
    • Shell To cast the shell, or exterior covering; to fall out of the pod or husk; as, nuts shell in falling.
    • Shell To fall off, as a shell, crust, etc.
    • Shell To separate the kernels of (an ear of Indian corn, wheat, oats, etc.) from the cob, ear, or husk.
    • Shell To strip or break off the shell of; to take out of the shell, pod, etc.; as, to shell nuts or pease; to shell oysters.
    • Shell To throw shells or bombs upon or into; to bombard; as, to shell a town.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: A mother hen turns her egg approximately 50 times in a day. This is so the yolk does not stick to the shell
    • n shell A scale or husk; the hard outer covering of some kinds of seeds and fruits, as a cocoanut.
    • n shell In zoology, a hard outer case or covering; a crust; a test; a lorica; a carapace; an indurated (osseous, cartilaginous, cuticular, chitinous, calcareous, silicious, etc.) integument or part of integument. (See exoskeleton.) Specifically
    • n shell In herpetology, a carapace or plastron, as of a turtle; specifically, tortoise shell.
    • n shell In ichthyology, the box-like integument of the ostracionts.
    • n shell In Mollusca, the test of any mollusk; the valve or valves of a shell-fish; the chitinized or calcified product of the mantle; a conch. A shell in one, two, or several pieces is so highly characteristic of mollusks that these animals are commonly called shell-fish collectively, and many of them are grouped as Testa-cea, Conchifera, etc. In some mollusks, as dibranchiate cephalopods, the shell is internal, constituting the pen or cuttle (see calamary) ; in others there is no shell. The shell is secreted chiefly by a mantle or folds of the mantle which are developed around the soft parts, and is usually composed of carbonate of lime. It is generally univalve and spiral, as in most gastropods. In chitons there are eight valves imbricated in a longitudinal series, bound together by a marginal band. In bivalves two shells are developed from and cover the sides of the animal, right and left. (See cuts under bivalve.) Some mollusks otherwise bivalve have accessory valves.
    • n shell In Brachiopoda there are two valves, but one covers the back and the other the abdominal region, so that the valves are dorsal and ventral. These shells are sometimes composed chiefly of phosphate of lime, as in lingulas.
    • n shell In Crustacea, the hard chitinous or calcareous integument or crust, or some special part of it; as, the shell of a crab or lobster
    • n shell In entorn.:
    • n shell The wing-case of a beetle; an elytron; a shard: as, “cases or shells (elytra),”
    • n shell The cast skin of a pupa, especially of lepidopterous insects; a pupa-shell.
    • n shell In echinoderms, the hard crust or integument, especially when it coheres in one hollow case or covering; a test: as, the shell of a sea-urchin.
    • n shell In Vermes, the tube or case of a tubicolous worm, when hard, thick, or rigid, like a mollusk's shell: as, the shell of a serpula.
    • n shell In some Protozoa, a silicious or calcareous test or lorica of any kind. Such shells are present under numberless modifications, often beautifully shaped and highly complicated, perforated, camerated, etc., as in foraminifers, radiolariatis, sun-animalcules, many infusorians, etc.
    • n shell In anatomy, some hard thin or hollowed part. A turbinate bone; a scroll-bone.
    • n shell The outer ear, auricle, or conch: as, pearly shells or pink shells.
    • n shell A shelled or testaceous mollusk; a shell-fish. In this sense shell may be added, with or without a hyphen, to numerous words, serving to specify mollusks or groups of mollusks. Some of the best-established of such combinations are noted after the phrases given below.
    • n shell The outer part or casing of a block which is mortised for the sheave, and bored at right angles to the mortise for the pin which forms the axle of the sheave. See cuts under block.
    • n shell The thin film of copper which forms the face of an electrotype, and is afterward backed with type-metal to the required thickness.
    • n shell Something resembling or suggesting a shell in structure or use. A frail structure or vessel incapable of sustaining rough handling, or of which the interior has been destroyed: as, the house is a mere shell.
    • n shell Any framework or exterior structure regarded as not being completed or filled in.
    • n shell A kind of rough coffin: also, a thin coffin designed to be inclosed by a more substantial one.
    • n shell A racing-boat of light build, long, low, and narrow (generally made of cedar or paper), rowed by means of outriggers, and (as now made) with the ends covered over to a considerable distance from both bow and stern, to prevent water from washing in; a scull; a gig.
    • n shell Collectively, the outside plates of a boiler.
    • n shell A hollow object of metal, paper, or the like, used to contain explosives. Especially
    • n shell A copper cylinder used as a roller in printing on paper or calico, the design being engraved upon the outer surface: so called because it is thin and hollow, and is mounted upon a wooden roller when in use.
    • n shell A part of the guard of a sword, consisting of a solid plate, sometimes perforated, attached to the cross-guard on either side. The combination of the two shells resulted in the cup-guard.
    • n shell A shell-jacket.
    • n shell A concave-faced tool of cast-iron, in which convex lenses are ground to shape. The glass is attached to the face of a runner, and is worked around in the shell with a swinging stroke. E. H. Knight.
    • n shell A gouge-bit or quill-bit.
    • n shell In weaving, the part of the lay into the grooves of which the reed fits. They are called respectively upper and under shells.
    • n shell A musical instrument such as a lyre, the first lyre being made, according to classic legend, of strings drawn over a tortoise's shell.
    • n shell In some public schools, an intermediate class or form.
    • n shell Outward show, without substance or reality.
    • n shell A shell filled with fuse-composition, and having an enlarged fuse-hole, used at night to determine the range.
    • n shell A shell whose bursting-charge is exploded by the heat of impact.
    • n shell A cartridge-case of paste board, containing a charge of powder and shot, to be exploded by center-fire or rim-fire percussion, now much used for breech-loading shot-guns instead of metal shells. They are made in enormous quantities for sportsmen, of different sizes to fit the usual bores, and of various patterns in respect of the devices for firing. Some have pretty solid metal heads, with nipples for percussion-caps, and such may be reloaded like metal shells, though they are not generally used after once firing. They are loaded by special machines for the purpose, including a device for crimping the open end down over the shot-wad, and take different charges of powder and shot according to the game for killing which they are designed to be used. See cut under shot-cartridge.
    • n shell A rowboat made of paper. See def. 8 .
    • shell To strip off or remove the shell or outer covering of; take out of the shell: as, to shell nuts.
    • shell To remove from the ear or cob: as, to shell corn.
    • shell To cover with or as with a shell; incase in or as in a shell.
    • shell To cover or furnish with shells, as an oysterbed; provide shells for spat to set; also, to cover (land) with oyster-shells as a fertilizer.
    • shell To throw bombshells into, upon, or among; bombard: as, to shell a fort or a town.
    • shell See the quotation.
    • shell To fall off, as a shell, crust, or exterior coat.
    • shell To cast the shell or ex terior covering: as, nuts shell in falling.
    • shell To deal in or have to do with oyster-shells in any way; transport, furnish, or make use of oyster-shells as an occupation. See I., 4.
    • n shell A smoked or colored concavo-convex glass for shielding the eye.
    • n shell In sheet-metal work, any piece of sheet-metal upon which one operation has been performed and which requires one or more additional operations to complete it. It is usually of a cup or shell form.
    • n shell The dug-out portion of a West Indian canoe, which consists of a dugout the sides of which are built up to any required height. See buck-shell.
    • n shell The part of a horse-hide obtained from the rump: a comparatively small piece.
    • n shell The porous cover of ferric oxid which incloses the kernel of concentrated copper obtained in roasting cupriferous iron pyrites. See kernel-roasting.
    • n shell A special form of hollow flat-iron used in finishing felt hats.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The largest chicken egg ever laid weighed a pound and had a double yolk and shell
    • n Shell shel a term applied to the hard outer covering or skeleton of many animals, to the internal skeleton of some invertebrates, and to the outer covering-of the eggs of various animals: any framework: the outer ear: a testaceous mollusc: any frail structure: a frail boat: a rough kind of coffin: an instrument of music: a bomb: a hollow projectile containing a bursting charge of gunpowder or other explosive ignited at the required instant by means of either time or percussion fuses: the thin coating of copper on an electrotype: an intermediate class in some schools
    • v.t Shell to break off the shell: to remove the shell from: to take out of the shell: to throw shells or bombs upon, to bombard
    • v.i Shell to fall off like a shell: to cast the shell
    • v.t Shell to coat with shellac
    • ***

Quotations

  • Marshall Mcluhan
    Marshall%20Mcluhan
    “The car has become the carapace, the protective and aggressive shell, of urban and suburban man.”
  • Bill Copeland
    Bill Copeland
    “Try to be like the turtle -- at ease in your own shell”
  • Dorothy Canfield Fisher
    Dorothy Canfield Fisher
    “Some people think that doctors and nurses can put scrambled eggs back into the shell.”
  • Kahlil Gibran
    Kahlil%20Gibran
    “Your pain is the breaking of the shell that encloses your understanding.”
  • Sri Ramakrishna
    Sri Ramakrishna
    “Dislodging a green nut from it's shell is almost impossible, but let it dry and the lightest tap will do it.”
  • Anne Morrow Lindbergh
    Anne%20Morrow%20Lindbergh
    “One cannot collect all the beautiful shells on the beach. One can collect only a few and they are more beautiful if they are a few.”

Idioms

Come out of your shell - If someone comes out of their shell, they stop being shy and withdrawn and become more friendly and sociable.
***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. shelle, schelle, AS. scell, scyll,; akin to D. shel, Icel. skel, Goth. skalja, a tile, and E. skill,. Cf. Scale of fishes, Shale Skill

Usage

In literature:

They also shelled Fleurbaix, which is three miles southwest of Armentieres, on April 5, 1915.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume V (of 12)"
The man who was driving got away, but he had shell-shock afterwards.
"One Man's Initiation--1917" by John Dos Passos
He gave orders that the Stokes gunners should shell the enemy while he climbed the tree.
"Our Casualty And Other Stories" by James Owen Hannay, AKA George A. Birmingham
Now, an inevitable part of the daily routine is to be shelled, persistently, methodically, and often accurately shelled.
"High Adventure" by James Norman Hall
This is a view in the plains region near Valencia showing both the hard shelled almonds and the soft shelled ones.
"Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the Eleventh Annual Meeting" by Various
I've fitted up half a dozen shells with that diabolical invention of yours.
"The World Peril of 1910" by George Griffith
The enemy were shelling the town, so I put a corporal on the watch to give notice as the shells drew nearer.
"Letters of Lt.-Col. George Brenton Laurie" by George Brenton Laurie
What a pity they did not shell the town!
"A Confederate Girl's Diary" by Sarah Margan Dawson
A few days ago a shell burst near me and I was wounded in twenty-nine places.
"War and the Weird" by Forbes Phillips
Another destructive hit was made by an 8-inch shell a few feet forward of the point where the pair of 12-inch shells had come in.
"Famous Sea Fights" by John Richard Hale
Now and then one of our guns would send a shell over towards the Turks.
"The 28th: A Record of War Service in the Australian Imperial Force, 1915-19, Vol. I" by Herbert Brayley Collett
He spoke about them retiring out of shell fire for a rest, and after pitching camp a shell fell in the next field.
"The Incomparable 29th and the "River Clyde"" by George Davidson
It was shelled now and again but not severely.
"Q.6.a and Other places" by Francis Buckley
The children, regardless of shell fire, scoured the fields for shrapnel bullets and bits of shells.
"Young Hilda at the Wars" by Arthur Gleason
Finally the Germans got their range and dropped shell after shell right among them.
"World's War Events, Vol. I" by Various
Blumpo was soon clinging to Jerry's shell.
"The Young Oarsmen of Lakeview" by Ralph Bonehill
Any shell holes in the roofs and walls are stopped with sections of tenting.
"The Note-Book of an Attache" by Eric Fisher Wood
Whilst thus engaged, several shells fell within thirty feet of me.
"How I Filmed the War" by Lieut. Geoffrey H. Malins
The city could not be shelled.
"Astounding Stories, April, 1931" by Various
What do you make of that long range gun that is shelling this very city?
"Aces Up" by Covington Clarke
***

In poetry:

Two bright stars
Peep'd into the shell.
"What are you dreaming of?
Who can tell?"
"Minnie and Winnie" by Alfred Lord Tennyson
I had not watched her sunlight blithe
As o'er their shells it dances -
I've seen those winkles almost writhe
Beneath her beaming glances.
"The Periwinkle Girl" by William Schwenck Gilbert
And I—since there is found none else than I,
No stronger, sweeter voice than mine, to tell
This tale of love that cannot stoop to die—
Were fain to be the whisper in the shell;
"Stronger Than Death" by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward
My hands have not touched pleasure since your hands, —
No, — nor my lips freed laughter since 'farewell',
And with the day, distance again expands
Voiceless between us, as an uncoiled shell.
"Exile" by Harold Hart Crane
Comrades still are onward charging,
He is lying on the sod:
Onward still their steeds are rushing
Where the shot and shell are crushing;
From his corpse the blood is gushing,
And his soul is with his God.
"The Charge At Balaklava" by James Barron Hope
Coo, dove; but what of the sky? And what if the storm-wind swell,
And the reeling branch come down from on high
To the grass where daisies dwell,
And the brood beloved should with them lie
Or ever they break the shell?
"Brothers, And A Sermon" by Jean Ingelow

In news:

Said that bartering has been a great way for him to get things for his small business that he wouldn't be able to afford if he had to shell out the cash -- like advertising.
Basin – US 14 between Greybull and Shell.
Israel bus blown up, shelling of Gaza continues as Clinton keeps up frantic diplomacy.
I pushed a peanut shell through a hole in the tabletop.
16 extra large shrimp (shelled and deveined).
This image made from amateur video released by Shaam News Network and accessed Saturday, June 9, 2012, purports to show a blanket-wrapped body after shelling in Daraa, Syria.
Everyday Food Sausage, Mozzarella, and Broccoli Rabe with Shells PBS.
Isabella Cruise may be camera shy, but leave it to her little brother to get her out of her shell.
Sauteed soft-shell crabs in brown butter vinaigrette.
Officers were called to the Shell gas station on the 100 block of Mountain Road at 11:15 pm Wednesday.
A missile shell became a whimsical bullet to carry Santa's sleigh.
The shell casing from the shooting was found in a storm drain on the corner of East Hanover and North Broad Streets.
How Shell Beach's Carissa Phelps survived the tragedies of teen prostitution to become a lawyer, author and champion in the fight against human trafficking.
People wait in line to fill containers with fuel at a Shell gas station October 30, 2012 in Edison, New Jersey.
Syrian army shells exploded Monday in the Syrian village of Bariqa.
***

In science:

Since the circumstellar shell dominates the emission from the system for λ ≥ 5 µm, the dust shell re-emits approximately 10% of the total stellar luminosity.
The Very Slow Wind From the Pulsating Semiregular Red Giant L2 Pup
The radiation field in each shell evolves independently of other shells.
Photon Emission in a Cascade from Relativistic Protons Initiated by Residual Thermal Photons in Gamma-Ray Bursts
The inner faster shell overtakes the outer slower one at r ≃ Γ2 s δ, where δ is the initial separation between the two shells in the observer rest frame.
Photon Emission in a Cascade from Relativistic Protons Initiated by Residual Thermal Photons in Gamma-Ray Bursts
Since the collision radius is comparable to Resc for the faster shell with Γr ≃ 103, internal shocks can occur in the thermal radiation field in the faster shell with temperature T ≃ 100 eV.
Photon Emission in a Cascade from Relativistic Protons Initiated by Residual Thermal Photons in Gamma-Ray Bursts
In the comoving frame the width of the shocked region in the outer shell is thinner than that of the inner shell when ∆ and M of the two shells are similar to each other.
Photon Emission in a Cascade from Relativistic Protons Initiated by Residual Thermal Photons in Gamma-Ray Bursts
For the last problem, Wilkin (1996) found analytic solutions for the steady-state shell configuration, including the surface density and flow velocity along the shell.
Trapped Protostellar Winds and their Breakout
The case ǫin = −1 corresponds to σ = 0 meaning no thin shell, and the case ǫin = +1 is only possible through a thin shell.
Formation of cosmological mass condensation within a FRW universe: exact general relativistic solutions
Restricted to the j -th shell it is by definition of that shell an operator with a norm of order M −j .
Random Matrices and the Anderson Model
Seniority (v) is uniquely defined for a single-j shell; it was generalized to the case of many-j shells by Talmi in Ref. .
Patterns of the ground states in the presence of random interactions: nucleon systems
To check whether this deviation becomes larger for larger shells, we calculate the case of two protons and two neutrons in the sdg shell, for which we obtained 385 cases with (I, T ) = (0, 0) ground states among 1000 sets of the TBRE Hamiltonians.
Patterns of the ground states in the presence of random interactions: nucleon systems
The spectrum is composed of two main components which correspond to the K shell and L shell internal conversion electrons of 14 keV nuclear transition respectively at 7.3 and 13.6 keV.
MACHe3, a prototype for non-baryonic dark matter search: KeV event detection and multicell correlation
As usual, our field becomes linear for a thick shell, so constraints are only different from those on a Yukawa field when ǫ large enough to give a thin shell, but small enough that the force is still detectable at the test mass position.
New Regions for a Chameleon to Hide
No shel l-crossing singularities: Physically, we demand that an outer shell (labelled by a larger value of r) have a larger area radius R than an inner shell, at any time t.
The Possibility of Cosmic Acceleration via Spatial Averaging in Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Models
LMC–MG 51.—This nebula is slightly elliptical, with a bright core surrounded by a faint, attached shell. A central emission cavity is slightly offset from the center, but overall the core is a factor of 3—5 brighter per unit area than the attached shell.
Hubble Space Telescope Images of Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae
The inner shell is very elliptical, and like the bright CS, is displaced from the center of the outer shell by 0.′′ 096 arcsec (0.023 pc) to the ENE.
Hubble Space Telescope Images of Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae
***