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shear

Definitions

  • SHEARS, KNIVES AND SPEARS
    SHEARS, KNIVES AND SPEARS
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v shear become deformed by forces tending to produce a shearing strain
    • v shear cut with shears "shear hedges"
    • v shear cut or cut through with shears "shear the wool off the lamb"
    • v shear shear the wool from "shear sheep"
    • n shear a large edge tool that cuts sheet metal by passing a blade through it
    • n shear (physics) a deformation of an object in which parallel planes remain parallel but are shifted in a direction parallel to themselves "the shear changed the quadrilateral into a parallelogram"
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Sheared sheep Sheared sheep

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Shear A pair of shears; -- now always used in the plural, but formerly also in the singular. See Shears. "On his head came razor none, nor shear .""Short of the wool, and naked from the shear ."
    • Shear A shearing; -- used in designating the age of sheep. "After the second shearing, he is a two- shear ram; . . . at the expiration of another year, he is a three- shear ram; the name always taking its date from the time of shearing."
    • Shear (Mech) A strain, or change of shape, of an elastic body, consisting of an extension in one direction, an equal compression in a perpendicular direction, with an unchanged magnitude in the third direction.
    • Shear (Engin) An action, resulting from applied forces, which tends to cause two contiguous parts of a body to slide relatively to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact; -- also called shearing stress, and tangential stress.
    • Shear Fig.: To deprive of property; to fleece.
    • Shear (Engin) To become more or less completely divided, as a body under the action of forces, by the sliding of two contiguous parts relatively to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact.
    • Shear To cut, clip, or sever anything from with shears or a like instrument; as, to shear sheep; to shear cloth.
    • Shear To deviate. See Sheer.
    • Shear (Mech) To produce a change of shape in by a shear. See Shear n., 4.
    • Shear To reap, as grain.
    • Shear To separate or sever with shears or a similar instrument; to cut off; to clip (something) from a surface; as, to shear a fleece. "Before the golden tresses . . . were shorn away."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • shear To cut; specifically, to clip or cut with a. sharp instrument, as a knife, but especially with shears, scissors, or the like: as, to shear sheep; to shear cloth (that is, to clip the nap).
    • shear To clip off; remove by clipping: as, to shear a fleece.
    • shear To fleece; strip bare, especially by swindling or sharp practice.
    • shear To shave.
    • shear To cut down or reap with a sickle or knife: as, to shear grain.
    • shear To make or produce by cutting.
    • shear To produce a shear in. See shear, n., 3.
    • shear To cut; cut, penetrate, or divide something with a sweeping motion.
    • shear In mining, to make a vertical cut in the coal, or a cut at right angles to that made in “holing.” See hole, transitive verb, 3.
    • shear To receive a strain of the kind called a shear. See shear, n., 3.
    • n shear A shearing or clipping: used in stating the age of sheep: as, a sheep of one shear, a two-shear sheep (that is, a sheep one or two years old), in allusion to the yearly shearing.
    • n shear A barbed fish-spear with several prongs.
    • n shear A strain consisting of a compression in one direction with an elongation in the same ratio in a direction perpendicular to the first. Thus, in fig. 1, suppose a body in which the axis AC is compressed to ac. Suppose there is an axis of equal elongation, upon which take BD equal to ac, so that after elongation it will be brought to bd, equal to AC. Then, all planes perpendicular to the plane of the diagram and parallel either to AB or to AD will remain undistorted, being simply rotated into positions parallel to ab or ad. If the body while undergoing strain be so rotated that a and b remain in coincidence with A and B (see fig. 2), the shear will be seen to be an advance of all planes parallel to a fixed plane in parallel lines in those planes by amounts proportional to their distances from the fixed plane. A shear is often called a simple shear, meaning a shear uncompounded with any other strain. Any simple strain may be resolved into a shear, a positive or negative elongation perpendicular to the shear, and a positive or negative expansion.
    • n shear Deflection or deviation from the straight; curve or sweep; sheer: as, the shear of a boat.
    • n shear In practical mech., a twofold doubling and welding.
    • n shear Same as shears.
    • shear An obsolete form of sheer.
    • n shear Deflection or deviation from the straight; curve or sweep; sheer: as, the shear of a boat.
    • n shear In geology, the attenuation or actual rupture of a mass of rock by a compressive strain, especially by one applied transversely to the bedding or foliation. It results in dragging out the component minerals into thin bands and, it may be, in rupturing their former continuity.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • v.t Shear shēr to cut or clip: to clip with shears or any other instrument:
    • v.i Shear to separate, cut, penetrate: in mining, to make a vertical cut in the coal:—pa.t. sheared, (obs.) shore; pa.p. sheared or shorn
    • n Shear a shearing or clipping: a strain where compression is answered by elongation at right angles: curve, deviation
    • v.t Shear shēr (Scot.) to reap with a sickle
    • ***

Quotations

  • Sydney Smith
    Sydney%20Smith
    “It resembles a pair of shears, so joined that they cannot be separated, often moving in opposite directions, yet always punishing anyone who comes between them.”
  • Tiberius Caesar
    Tiberius Caesar
    “It is the duty of a good shepherd to shear his sheep, not to skin them.”
  • Austin O'Malley
    Austin%20O%27Malley
    “In levying taxes and in shearing sheep it is well to stop when you get down to the skin.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. sheren, scheren, to shear, cut, shave, AS. sceran, scieran, scyran,; akin to D. & G. scheren, Icel. skera, Dan. skire, Gr. . Cf. Jeer Score Shard Share Sheer to turn aside
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. sceran; Ice. skera, to clip, Ger. scheren, to shave.

Usage

In literature:

A pair of office shears can sever a telephone wire much faster than any mechanician can keep it repaired.
"Mince Pie" by Christopher Darlington Morley
Picked the geese and sheared the sheep.
"Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States From Interviews with Former Slaves: Volume II, Arkansas Narratives, Part 2" by Work Projects Administration
When Sybil at length travelled up-country with her husband the shearing season had already commenced.
"Rosa Mundi and Other Stories" by Ethel M. Dell
The paper was laid on the table after breakfast, together with a blue pencil and a pair of office shears.
"John Thorndyke's Cases" by R. Austin Freeman
Now my head I shear to Mary; 'Tis a true heart's very due.
"A Celtic Psaltery" by Alfred Perceval Graves
The Boss took me to learn shearing.
"Argentina From A British Point Of View" by Various
Jim Harmer said he wur just about wonderful with the ewes at the shearing.
"Joanna Godden" by Sheila Kaye-Smith
I like it; and I think there are few things merrier than a sheep-shearing.
"The Squire of Sandal-Side" by Amelia Edith Huddleston Barr
Shearing should be done after lambing, usually in late spring or early summer.
"Pratt's Practical Pointers on the Care of Livestock and Poultry" by Pratt Food Co.
Clip (shear) = tondi.
"English-Esperanto Dictionary" by John Charles O'Connor and Charles Frederic Hayes
It was the custom, when the shearing was finished, for the Shepherds and Shearers to be entertained at supper by the Farmer.
"Weather and Folk Lore of Peterborough and District" by Charles Dack
M: Number failing by longitudinal shear.
"Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. LXX, Dec. 1910" by W. B. Gregory
The women tend them and shear them and even nurse them.
"I Married a Ranger" by Dama Margaret Smith
As a special favor, I'll be willing to cut it off for you, with a big pair of shears that my mother has.
"The Tale of Frisky Squirrel" by Arthur Scott Bailey
They had on coarse, old clothing, and carried queer-looking shears in their hands.
"Among the Farmyard People" by Clara Dillingham Pierson
The inclined tensions and compressions in the bars of a braced web are equivalent to this shear.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 3" by Various
Ever since I see him at that shearing at Agua Caliente eight, ten year gone, he not like for let me be.
"The Spinner's Book of Fiction" by Various
Smilingly, he took out his shears and he cut off the shining hair, every strand and every tress.
"The Children of Odin" by Padraic Colum
He lacks the flashes of genius that illumine a Dupin, a Lecoq or a Holmlock Shears.
"The Blonde Lady" by Maurice Leblanc
The triumph of the Castle was completed by the capture of Neilson and the Sheares.
"William Pitt and the Great War" by John Holland Rose
***

In poetry:

Bonnie lassie will ye gang
Shear wi' me the hale day lang;
An' love will mak' us eithly bang
The weary toil o' shearing?
"When Autumn Comes" by Robert Hogg
The blewe a mort uppone the bent,
The semblyde on sydis shear;
To the quyrry then the Perse went,
To se the bryttlynge off the deare.
"Chevy-Chase" by Anonymous British
For then, my lassie, we'll be wed,
When we hae proof o' ither had,
An' nae mair need to mind what's said
When we're thegither shearing.
"When Autumn Comes" by Robert Hogg
He shears the midnight with its shadowy shrouds,
Till every breath and pant
Mirrors and paints itself against the clouds,
Like northern lights aslant.
"To My Readers" by Alexander Anderson
Ungrateful creatures crave a part -
She tells them firmly she is full;
Lost sheared sheep hurt her tender heart
With bleating, stops her ears with wool:-
"Lines To A Friend Visiting America" by George Meredith
" —— was born to spread the general joy;
By virtue rapt, by party uncontroll'd;
Britons for Britain shall the crook employ;
Britons for Britain's glory shear the fold."
"Elegy XVIII. He Repeats the Song of Colin, a Discerning Shepherd" by William Shenstone

In news:

Then she would shear around the sheep and get the entire fleece off in a single piece.
He deftly removed the winter coats from seven sheep without breaking a sweat, chatting all the while with the small crowd watching as he held the sheep between his knees and his electric shears in his right hand.
New Zealand produces some of the world's best shearers and its national championship, the Golden Shears, receives substantial media coverage in the country.
Other shearing countries include Ireland and Australia.
Friday Single Shot #7 – Kelsey Creek Sheep Shearing .
Sheep Shearing at Kelsey Creek Farm - 2010.
Family and farm activities will be part of Kelsey Creek Farm's Sheep Shearing Event, tomorrow between 11am and 4pm.
George Shearing, English-born jazz pianist whose 'Lullaby' became a standard, dies at 91.
Automatic Line for Punching and Shearing of Flats.
"I was surprised at how willing the sheep was to lay there and be sheared, " Edie Smith said.
MTSU Shearing School Keeps Ancient Craft Alive in Middle Tennessee.
Murfreesboro, TN – MTSU AgriBusiness/Science Department teaches a new generation an old craft with 25th annual sheep shearing school.
Tourist attack could be linked to shearing gangs.
George Shearing with Alyn Shipton Lullaby of Birdland.
George Shearing Trio in New York.
***

In science:

The ratio of the shearing time to the thermal time is important.
Rotational Evolution During Type I X-Ray Bursts
Numerical simulations confirm presence of the turbulent layer with a velocity shear surrounding fast central spine of the jet (Aloy et al., 1999), although the exact nature of the shear regions is still hardly known.
A Role of the Boundary Shear Layer in Modeling of Large Scale Jets
Note that although we consider here a linear shear flow with constant shear, any linear shear flow can be treated as a constant shear for x ≈ x0 and with U ′ = dU/dx, evaluated at x = x0 .
Kinetic theory viscosity
After applying this correction to the entire star sample from all 18 cluster fields, the median tangential shear of the stars is reduced to the same level as the radial stellar shear i.e. ∼<1–2%.
A Hubble Space Telescope Lensing Survey of X-ray Luminous Galaxy Clusters: IV. Mass, Structure and Thermodynamics of Cluster Cores at z=0.2
The calibration bias is not detected by the usual systematic tests such as the E and B modes decomposition of the shear field and the cross-correlation of the shear maps against the point-spread function (PSF) maps.
Probing decisive answers to dark energy questions from cosmic complementarity and lensing tomography
This means that the shear needed for transport is small, ∆Ω ≪ Ω0, and that the shear quickly comes into steady-state for a given Ω0 (t ), so that ∆Ω does not explicitly depend on t .
The Internal Shear of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors During Accretion and Simmering
Moreover, it has been shown in Appendix B of that the anisotropic shear behaves as a kind of anisotropic matter: the quantities defined in (4.5) can be considered as the “energy density of the classical anisotropic shear” (portioned to the specific direction).
Phenomenological loop quantum geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole
However, since line-of-sight pro jections alter the shear signal of clusters, we do not know if the abundance of shear peaks depends on cosmology in the same way as the abundance of virialized clusters.
The cosmology dependence of weak lensing cluster counts
This sheared input LF also causes the sheared output LF at the image plane in the x–direction; however, the intensity does not change significantly because the contribution s from the upper and lower parts of the curved LF are compensated with each other.
Augmenting Light Field to model Wave Optics effects
In practice, we have found that although many images have some shear (indeed, the SDSS images that we have used as our primary test set have this property), the magnitude of the shear is typically small enough that it does not distort the geometric features very much.
Astrometry.net: Blind astrometric calibration of arbitrary astronomical images
The boundary between ordered and disordered region appears sharp and moves downward as N is increased further, similar to development of crystalline order inside a Couette shear cell upon extended shearing .
Spatial distribution functions of random packed granular spheres obtained by direct particle imaging
We also wish to point out that the shear viscosity contributes even though the flow has no shear.
Spinodal phase separation in relativistic nuclear collisions
There are only two general processes that can produce the observed shear in filament channels: either the field emerges from below in a non-potential, sheared state, or the photospheric motions shear the field after it emerges into the corona.
Tests of Dynamical Flux Emergence as a Mechanism for CME Initiation
There are numerous other CME models which either assume the appearance of sheared magnetic flux at the low corona, or use driving velocities to create sheared structures from coronal equilibria.
Tests of Dynamical Flux Emergence as a Mechanism for CME Initiation
Figure 2(c) shows the energy in the shear magnetic field (normalized to the energy in the total field) in a typical breakout model simulation as shearing is applied at the surface.
Tests of Dynamical Flux Emergence as a Mechanism for CME Initiation
***