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rock

Definitions

  • the Triumphal Bas-reliefs of Kheops on The Rocks Of Wady Maghara
    the Triumphal Bas-reliefs of Kheops on The Rocks Of Wady Maghara
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v rock move back and forth or sideways "the ship was rocking","the tall building swayed","She rocked back and forth on her feet"
    • v rock cause to move back and forth "rock the cradle","rock the baby","the wind swayed the trees gently"
    • n rock pitching dangerously to one side
    • n rock a genre of popular music originating in the 1950s; a blend of black rhythm-and-blues with white country-and-western "rock is a generic term for the range of styles that evolved out of rock'n'roll."
    • n rock hard bright-colored stick candy (typically flavored with peppermint)
    • n rock a lump or mass of hard consolidated mineral matter "he threw a rock at me"
    • n rock (figurative) someone who is strong and stable and dependable "he was her rock during the crisis","Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church"--Gospel According to Matthew"
    • n Rock United States gynecologist and devout Catholic who conducted the first clinical trials of the oral contraceptive pill (1890-1984)
    • n rock material consisting of the aggregate of minerals like those making up the Earth's crust "that mountain is solid rock","stone is abundant in New England and there are many quarries"
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Triumphal Bas-relief of Pharaoh SahÛrÛ, on The Rocks of Wady Magharah Triumphal Bas-relief of Pharaoh SahÛrÛ, on The Rocks of Wady Magharah
the Rocks of The Island Of Sehêl, With Some Of The Votive Inscriptions the Rocks of The Island Of Sehêl, With Some Of The Votive Inscriptions
East Front of the Rock Temple of Elephanta East Front of the Rock Temple of Elephanta
The Rock Temple of Kailus at Ellora The Rock Temple of Kailus at Ellora
Rock Hill, Hambledon Rock Hill, Hambledon
The bear standing on a rock outcrop The bear standing on a rock outcrop
Steps wind up between a rock wall and trees Steps wind up between a rock wall and trees
A large rock outcrop on a hilltop A large rock outcrop on a hilltop

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The world record for rocking non-stop in a rocking chair is 480 hours held by Dennis Easterling, of Atlanta, Georgia
    • n Rock A distaff used in spinning; the staff or frame about which flax is arranged, and from which the thread is drawn in spinning. "Sad Clotho held the rocke, the whiles the thread
      By grisly Lachesis was spun with pain,
      That cruel Atropos eftsoon undid."
    • Rock A large concreted mass of stony material; a large fixed stone or crag. See Stone. "Come one, come all! this rock shall fly
      From its firm base as soon as I."
    • Rock (Geol) Any natural deposit forming a part of the earth's crust, whether consolidated or not, including sand, earth, clay, etc., when in natural beds.
    • Rock Fig.: Anything which causes a disaster or wreck resembling the wreck of a vessel upon a rock.
    • n Rock See Roc.
    • Rock That which resembles a rock in firmness; a defense; a support; a refuge. "The Lord is my rock, and my fortress."
    • Rock (Zoöl) The striped bass. See under Bass.
    • Rock To cause to sway backward and forward, as a body resting on a support beneath; as, to rock a cradle or chair; to cause to vibrate; to cause to reel or totter. "A rising earthquake rocked the ground."
    • Rock To move as in a cradle; hence, to put to sleep by rocking; to still; to quiet. "Sleep rock thy brain."
    • Rock To move or be moved backward and forward; to be violently agitated; to reel; to totter. "The rocking town
      Supplants their footsteps."
    • Rock To roll or saway backward and forward upon a support; as, to rock in a rocking-chair.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The most common rock on Earth is basalt
    • n rock The mass of mineral matter of which the earth, so far as accessible to observation, is made up; a mass, fragment, or piece of that crust, if too large to be designated as a stone, and if spoken of in a general way without special designation of its nature. When there is such special designation, the term stone is more generally adopted, as in building-stone, paving-stone, limestone, freestone; or the special designation of the material itself may be used without qualification, as granite, slate, marble, etc. The unconsolidated stony materials which form a considerable part of the superficial crust, or that which is at or near the surface, such as sand, gravel, and clay, are not commonly designated as rock or rocks; the geologist, however, includes under the term rock, for the purpose of general description, all the consolidated materials forming the crust, as well as the fragmental or detrital beds which have been derived from it. Rocks are ordinarily composed of two or more mineral species, but some rocks are made up almost entirely of one species: thus, granite is essentially an aggregate of quartz, feldspar, and mica, while marble usually consists chiefly of carbonate of lime, and sandstone and quartzite chiefly of quartz. The number of varieties of rock, according to the classification and description of lithologists, is very great. The number of names popularly in use for rocks is small: granite, porphyry, lava, sandstone or freestone, limestone, marble, and slate are terms under one or the other of which by far the largest part of the rocks are commonly classed. (See these words.) More than 600 distinct species of minerals have been described, but a very small number of them occur as essential constituents of rocks: of these, quartz, the feldspars, the micas, the minerals of the augite and hornbl ende group, talc, chlorite, olivin, and carbonate of lime, with which often more or less of carbonate of magnesia is associated, form the great bulk of the rocks. But there are several other minerals which are quite commonly found as accessory constituents, and sometimes in masses large enough to be worthy of the designation of rock: such are garnet, epidote, various oxids of iron, pyrites, apatite, andalusite, leucite, tourmalin, and a few others. Some mineral substances occur in masses of great extent and thickness, but do not play the part of rock-forming minerals: such are salt, gypsum, and the varieties of coal. Rocks are variously classed by geologists. The most general subdivision of them is into igneous and aqueous: the former are divided into plutonic and volcanic, according as they have been formed under conditions of depth and pressure, like granite, or have been poured out upon the surface in the manner of lava. The aqueous rocks are also designated as sedimentary, fossiliferous, or stratified. The sedimentary rocks in general are believed to be made up of material resulting from the decay and abrasion of igneous masses, since almost all geologists admit that the crust of the earth has cooled from a state of fusion. Part of the stratified deposits, however, have been formed through the agency of life, as in the case of the limestones, most of which have been secreted from an aqueous solution by various organisms, and of coal, which is the result of a peculiar kind of decay of vegetable matter. Some rocks have been formed by the simple evaporation of a solution: for instance, rock-salt. The sedimentary rocks are classified for lithological description according to the nature and texture of the materials of which they are made up: they are arranged in the chronological order of their deposition according to the nature of the fossils which they contain. Sedimentary rocks have frequently been greatly changed in character by metamorphosis, by which they have been rendered crystalline, and sometimes made so closely to resemble igneous rocks that their true character can only with the greatest difficulty be made out.
    • n rock A stone of any size, even a pebble.
    • n rock A mass of stone forming an eminence or a cliff.
    • n rock Hence, in Scripture, figuratively, foundation; strength; asylum; means of safety; defense.
    • n rock A cause or source of peril or disaster: from the wrecking of vessels on rocks: as, this was the rock on which he split.
    • n rock A kind of hard sweetmeat, variously flavored.
    • n rock Same as rockfish, 1 .
    • n rock The rock-dove, Calumba livia, more fully called blue-rock.
    • n rock A kind of soap. See the quotation.
    • n rock A piece of money: commonly in the plural: as, a pocketful of rocks.
    • n rock A very hard kind of cheese, made from skimmed milk, used in Hampshire, England.
    • n rock Synonyms It is an error to use rock for a stone so small that a man can handle it: only a fabulous person or a demi-god can lift a rock.
    • rock To throw stones at; stone.
    • rock To move backward and forward, as a body supported below (especially on a single point, a narrow line, or a curved base); cause to sway upon a support: as, to rock a cradle; to rock a chair; sometimes, to cause to reel or totter.
    • rock To move backward and forward in a cradle, chair, etc.
    • rock To lull; quiet, as if by rocking in a cradle.
    • rock In engraving, to abrade the surface of, as a copper or steel plate, preparatory to scraping a mezzotinto. See cradle, n., 4 .
    • rock To cleanse by rocking or shaking about in sand.
    • rock To affect by rocking in a manner indicated by a connected word or words: as, to rock one into a headache; the earthquake rocked down the houses.
    • rock To move backward and forward; be moved backward and forward; reel.
    • n rock The act of rocking; specifically, a step in fancy dancing.
    • n rock A distaff used in hand-spinning; the staff or frame about which the flax or wool is arranged from which the thread is drawn in spinning.
    • n rock A young hedgehog.
    • n rock See roc.
    • n rock A / B ⟨ 7 / 1 ⟩ 5 / 3, A dominates over B;
    • n rock A / B ⟨ 5 / 3 ⟩ 3 / 5, A and B are equal or nearly equal;
    • n rock A / B ⟨ 3 / 5 ⟩ 1 / 7, B dominates over A;
    • n rock A / B ⟨ 1 / 7, B is extreme. Names or terms applicable to and are formed with the prefix per-; those applicable to and are formed with the prefix do-; terms applied to combine two syllables mnemonic of the two factors compared. All igneous rocks fall into five classes, according to the proportions of the salic and femic groups of standard minerals expressing their chemical composition, that is, according to the proportions of the salic and femic minerals in their norms. These minerals are calculated from a chemical analysis of the rock, which may have been obtained by the usual chemical methods, or by calculation from the mineral composition of the rock determined by optical methods. The five classes are: persalane, extremely salic, including rocks high in quartz, feldspar or feldspathoids, corundum or zircon;
    • n rock dosalane, dominantly salic, including rocks in which the minerals just mentioned dominate over the femic minerals;
    • n rock salfemane, equally, or nearly equally, salic and femic;
    • n rock dofemane, dominantly femic;
    • n rock perfemane, extremely femic, including such rocks as peridotites and pyroxenites. Each class is divided into five subclasses on the proportions of two subgroups of the predominant group of standard minerals. For salic minerals the subgroups are: quartz, feldspars, feldspathoids;
    • n rock corundum, zircon. For femic minerals the subgroups are: pyroxenes, olivin, akermanite, magnetite, hematite, titanite, ihnenite, perofskite, rutile;
    • n rock apatite, fluorite, pyrite, etc. Almost all igneous rocks belong to the first subclass in each class. Few are rich in corundum, or zircon, or apatite. Orders are based on the proportions of mineral subdivisions of the preponderant subgroup making a subclass. Thus of the first subgroup of salic minerals, quartz and feldspars are compared with each other, and feldspars and feldspathoids, yielding nine orders in classes 1, 2, 3, as: perquaric
    • n rock doquaric, etc. The orders are further divided into sections by comparing the proportions of normative pyroxene with olivin and akermanite, and the proportions of normative minerals having ferric iron with those containing titanium oxid. Rangs are formed on the character of the chemical basis in the groups of standard minerals forming orders. Thus in the first three classes the five rangs are based on the proportions of K2O + Na2O to CaO in the salic minerals, making: peralkalic
    • n rock domalkalic
    • n rock alkalicalcic
    • n rock docalcic
    • n rock percalcic. In the last two classes the rangs are based on the proportions of CaO + MgO + FeO to K2O + Na2O in the femic minerals, giving: permirlic
    • n rock domirlic
    • n rock alkalimirlic
    • n rock domalkalic
    • n rock peralkalie. Subrangs are based on the proportions of the chemical components within the dominant group of oxids. Thus when the alkalis are dominant the subrangs are: perpotassic.
    • n rock dopotassic
    • n rock sodipotassic
    • n rock dosodic
    • n rock persodic. In rangs in which CaO + MgO + FeO dominate sections of rangs are based on the proportions of MgO + FeO compared with CaO, giving: permiric
    • n rock domiric
    • n rock calcimiric
    • n rock docalcic
    • n rock percalcic. Subrangs of these are based on the proportions of MgO and FeO, and are: permagnesic
    • n rock domagnesic
    • n rock magnesiferrous
    • n rock doferrous
    • n rock perferrous. Grads, the next taxonomic divisions, are based on the proportions of subdivisions of the subordinate group of standard minerals in a manner analogous to the formation of orders; subgrads are based on the chemical characters of these minerals in a manner similar to that followed in forming rangs. The names of other divisions of the system are constructed from geographical names with suffixes peculiar to the different ranks of the system as follows: -ane, class; -one, subclass; -are, order; -ore, suborder; -ase, rang; -ose, subrang; -ate, grad; -ote, subgrad. The termination for the name of a section of any of these is formed by inserting i before the proper suffix.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Benjamin Franklin invented the rocking chair.
    • n Rock rok a large mass of stone: :
    • v.t Rock to throw stones at
    • n Rock rok a distaff
    • v.t Rock rok to move backward and forward: to lull or quiet
    • v.i Rock to be moved backward and forward, to reel
    • n Rock rok (geol.) a natural deposit of sand, earth, or clay: that which has the firmness of a rock, foundation, support, defence
    • n Rock rok (Scot.) a distaff: a hard sweetmeat
    • ***

Quotations

  • Indian Proverb
    Indian Proverb
    “Call on God, but row away from the rocks.”
  • Saunders
    Saunders
    “Only the guy who isn't rowing has time to rock the boat.”
  • South African Proverb
    South African Proverb
    “The hand that rocks the cradle rules the nation and its destiny.”
  • George Herbert
    George%20Herbert
    “A man of great memory without learning hath a rock and a spindle and no staff to spin.”
  • Aretha Franklin
    Aretha Franklin
    “I've always felt rock and roll was very, very wholesome music.”
  • Tipper Gore
    Tipper Gore
    “You're talking to someone who really understands rock music.”

Idioms

Between a rock and a hard place - If you are caught between a rock and a hard place, you are in a position where you have to choose between unpleasant alternatives, and your choice might cause you problems; you will not be able to satisfy everyone.
***
Dumb as a rock - If you are dumb as a rock, you have no common sense and are stupid.
***
Hand that rocks the cradle - Women have a great power and influence because they have the greatest influence over the development of children- the hand that rocks the cradle. ('The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world' is the full form.)
***
Hit rock bottom - When someone hits rock bottom, they reach a point in life where things could not get any worse.
***
On the rocks - If something, like a relationship, is on the rocks, it is in trouble and may come to an end.
***
Rock the boat - If you rock the boat, you destabilise a situation by making trouble. It is often used as advice; 'Don't rock the boat'.
***
You've got rocks in your head - (USA) Someone who has acted with a lack of intelligence has rocks in their head.
***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. rocke,; akin to D. rok, rokken, G. rocken, OHG. roccho, Dan. rok, Icel. rokkr,. Cf. Rocket a firework
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. roke, roche; prob. Celt., as in Gael. roc, W. rhwg, a projection.

Usage

In literature:

What was my surprise to see a boat coming off from the rock.
"In the Wilds of Africa" by W.H.G. Kingston
Leading back from the river the canyon walls are made up in part of shelving rocks and terraces.
"Wealth of the World's Waste Places and Oceania" by Jewett Castello Gilson
This island and these perilous rocks were dead to leeward of the Waldo, and hardly a mile distant.
"The Coming Wave" by Oliver Optic
Dave was working his way along a small ridge of outcropping rocks, when he came to one rock that stood out much higher than the rest.
"Dave Porter in the Gold Fields" by Edward Stratemeyer
Then, crossing the stream, they rounded a sharp spur of rocks, and the dreaded city of Harar was before them.
"The River of Darkness" by William Murray Graydon
Rock-salt sometimes melts a little under the earth, and if that happens, the rocks above it sink, and in that way hollows have been formed.
"Chatterbox, 1906" by Various
Mrs. Rocke," he said, turning toward the latter, "your presence and that of your young charge is no longer required here.
"Capitola's Peril" by Mrs. E.D.E.N. Southworth
He took them and left them on a rock in the sea, a rock that the tide would cover.
"The Children of Odin" by Padraic Colum
A ledge of rocks below the water runs off from the Needles, known as the Needle Ledge.
"A Yacht Voyage Round England" by W.H.G. Kingston
Snow and loose rock slid with him, and so did Slone.
"The Boy Scouts Book of Campfire Stories" by Various
Below these we come to soft, crumbling rock and last of all the solid rock.
"Conservation Reader" by Harold W. Fairbanks
Besides variety of form, sedimentary rocks furnish a wide range of color derived from mineral dyes dissolved out of rocks by erosion.
"The Book of the National Parks" by Robert Sterling Yard
He also showed me how I might know it from the beach, and by what rocks I could distinguish it.
"The Birthright" by Joseph Hocking
Run, run to the big rock, and you can see them too.
"The Cave Twins" by Lucy Fitch Perkins
A man was descending the run with hurried strides, wading with bare feet, or springing from rock to rock where were the deeper pools.
"Heart of the Blue Ridge" by Waldron Baily
Ten feet away upon a bowlder that rose above the rest of the rocks, sat a small animal which at first I mistook for a young rabbit.
"A Mountain Boyhood" by Joe Mills
We crashed horribly against the barren gray rock of the Moon.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science, May, 1930" by Various
On the rocks near the ship, helmet-lights of prowling brigands occasionally showed.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science, June, 1930" by Various
There was another turn ahead, and a particularly hard climb over some rather rough rocks.
"Dave Porter At Bear Camp" by Edward Stratemeyer
They came from the wall beside him, sharp tappings muffled by distance, the faintest whispering echo of rock striking upon rock.
"Two Thousand Miles Below" by Charles Willard Diffin
***

In poetry:

Hey, Lawdy Mama!
Do you hear what I said?
Easy like I rock it
In my bed!
"Easy Boogie" by Langston Hughes
A little bubble
Once came sailing by,
And thus to the rock
Did it gayly cry,—
"The Rock And The Bubble" by Louisa May Alcott
But ever on the bleakest rock
We bid the brightest beacon glow,
And still upon the thorniest stock
The sweetest roses love to blow.
"The New Eden" by Oliver Wendell Holmes
Thy hand had set my feet upon a rock,
That Rock stands fast, why then this loss and harm?
I cannot find the footsteps of the flock,
I cannot feel the Well-Beloved's arm.
"Out Of The Depths" by Nora Pembroke
He builds his house upon a rock,
Who makes Thy word his hope and trust:
And flood and flame and tempest shock
In vain will rage,—they cannot rock
The steadfast temple of the just.
"A Wise Man--builds upon a Rock" by John Bowring
In the tumult of the air
Rock the boughs with all the nests
Cradled on their tossing crests;
By the fervor of his prayer
Troubled hearts were everywhere
Rocked and tossed in human breasts.
"In The Harbour: The Children's Crusade" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

In news:

It worked, being that art rock, or progressive rock, was still in it's infancy.
ROCK HILL — The past couple of seasons have been anything but rosy for Rock Hill High School's football program.
Acrobats, punkabilly, bluegrass, garage-rock, reggae -rock and a classical duo.
Eric Metcalf, 19, from Cary, died in a rock climbing accident in Hanging Rock Stae Park on July 8, 2012.
Cary resident and UNC honors student Eric Metcalf, 19, died in a rock climbing accident at Hanging Rock State Park.
"Our dad has always been into rock climbing and did rock climbing in Germany," she said.
I've never been rock climbing before, though I've done a rock wall at my gym.
Sevendust, Pop Evil, Nonpoint, Soil, Beyond Threshold, The Last Vegas and Wayland will perform at the first ByronFest Rocks the Rock concert beginning at 4 pm, Thursday, July 12.
A 60 year old Rock Springs man was killed in a one vehicle rollover Tuesday on Interstate 80 about two miles west of Rock Springs, according to a spokesman for the Wyoming Highway Patrol.
The body of a young man found near Rock Springs on Sunday August 19 has been officially confirmed to be that of a missing Rock Springs youth.
Louis Indie Rock News & Reviews From Rock Candy.
Forget pet rocks, I want a party rock.
Zurich-based design company Micasa Lab is developing a power-generating rocking chair, which charges your iPad as you rock.
Rocking the Rocking Chair Set in "Young at Heart".
Zurich-based design company Micasa Lab is developing a power-generating rocking chair, which charges your iPad as you rock.
***

In science:

Rocking with twice the fundamental frequency of the swing amplifies the oscillation, starting from tiny initial movements, a phenomenon called parametric resonance .
Quantum Physics of Simple Optical Instruments
Bi-colored alternating simple cubic lattice (rock salt lattice).
On Site Percolation on Correlated Simple Cubic Lattice
For instance ”This rock is heavy, rough and white” are immediate directly observed properties of a laboratory sized system, a rock.
Towards a Coherent Theory of Physics and Mathematics: The Theory-Experiment Connection
Their rate and spectrum negligibly depends on the composition of the material: for definiteness we consider the rock case.
Spectra of neutrinos from dark matter annihilations
Gorham et al., “Measurements of the Suitability of Large Rock Salt Formations for Radio Detection of High Energy Neutrinos”, Nucl.
Evaluation of Giga-bit Ethernet Instrumentation for SalSA Electronics Readout (GEISER)
Their high quality and homogeneity are demonstrated by narrow rocking curves and superconducting transition widths.
Tl2Ba2CuO6+d Brings Spectroscopic Probes Deep Into the Overdoped Regime of the High-Tc Cuprates
The accretion funnel does have a width, which like a rock hitting a pond has associated with it a range of characteristic sizes (read wavelengths).
Multi-Dimensional Explorations in Supernova Theory
Events were classified as: Upthroughgoing muons from interactions in the rock below the detector of νµ with hEν i ∼ 50 GeV.
Atmospheric neutrino and Long Baseline neutrino experiments
Upward-going muons (UPMU), produced by νµ from below interacting in the rock, are subdivided into stopping (hEν i ∼ 7 GeV) and throughgoing muons (hEν i ∼ 70 ÷ 80 GeV) .
Atmospheric neutrino and Long Baseline neutrino experiments
The first electronic subdetector is an anticoincidence wal l to separate µ events coming from interactions in OPERA from those in the material and rock before OPERA.
Atmospheric neutrino and Long Baseline neutrino experiments
During the same test run, a test of the CS procedure was performed, using an emulsion detector plane inserted in the SM2 target. 9 muons produced by neutrino interactions in the rock surrounding the detector crossed the CS plane surface.
Atmospheric neutrino and Long Baseline neutrino experiments
Here the source of non-equilibrium energy is none other than the gentle gradient of flux lines thanks to a rock magnetic field (non-homogeneous).
Magnetism, FeS colloids, and Origins of Life
Next, for ratchet-like effects, consider super-paramagnetic ligand-bound particles (Milner-White and Russell 2005, 2008), diffusing through the structured phase in an oriented manner as a consequence of gentle change in flux lines, assuming that magnetic rocks would have provided a non-homogeneous field.
Magnetism, FeS colloids, and Origins of Life
In framboids reported in sedimentary rocks more than 11,000 years old [Roberts and Turner (1993)], the central parts of the weakly magnetized framboids were found to have greigite microcrystals.
Magnetism, FeS colloids, and Origins of Life
Thus, a rock H-field for accreting 10nm sized particles would have to be 1000fold higher.
Magnetism, FeS colloids, and Origins of Life
***