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ray

Definitions

  • X ray Showing Tuberculosis of the Lung
    X ray Showing Tuberculosis of the Lung
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v ray expose to radiation "irradiate food"
    • v ray extend or spread outward from a center or focus or inward towards a center "spokes radiate from the hub of the wheel","This plants radiate spines in all directions"
    • v ray emit as rays "That tower rays a laser beam for miles across the sky"
    • n ray cartilaginous fishes having horizontally flattened bodies and enlarged winglike pectoral fins with gills on the underside; most swim by moving the pectoral fins
    • n ray any of the stiff bony spines in the fin of a fish
    • n ray the syllable naming the second (supertonic) note of any major scale in solmization
    • n ray a column of light (as from a beacon)
    • n ray a group of nearly parallel lines of electromagnetic radiation
    • n ray a branch of an umbel or an umbelliform inflorescence
    • n ray (mathematics) a straight line extending from a point
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Cathode ray Cathode ray
Edison's X-ray machine Edison's X-ray machine
X-ray machine in use X-ray machine in use
X-ray focus tube X-ray focus tube
X-ray apparatus used to look inside skull X-ray apparatus used to look inside skull
Scanning the torso with X-ray machine Scanning the torso with X-ray machine
Cross-section of the ray of a starfish Cross-section of the ray of a starfish

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The first email was sent out by Ray Tomlinson in 1971
    • Ray (Physics) A line of light or heat proceeding from a radiant or reflecting point; a single element of light or heat propagated continuously; as, a solar ray; a polarized ray.
    • Ray (Bot) A radiating part of a flower or plant; the marginal florets of a compound flower, as an aster or a sunflower; one of the pedicels of an umbel or other circular flower cluster; radius. See Radius.
    • n Ray (Zoöl) Any one of numerous elasmobranch fishes of the order Raiæ, including the skates, torpedoes, sawfishes, etc.
    • n Ray Array; order; arrangement; dress. "And spoiling all her gears and goodly ray ."
    • Ray One of a number of lines or parts diverging from a common point or center, like the radii of a circle; as, a star of six rays .
    • Ray (Geom) One of a system of diverging lines passing through a point, and regarded as extending indefinitely in both directions. See Half-ray.
    • Ray (Physics) One of the component elements of the total radiation from a body; any definite or limited portion of the spectrum; as, the red ray; the violet ray. See Illust. under Light.
    • Ray (Zoöl) One of the radiating spines, or cartilages, supporting the fins of fishes.
    • Ray (Zoöl) One of the spheromeres of a radiate, especially one of the arms of a starfish or an ophiuran.
    • Ray Sight; perception; vision; -- from an old theory of vision, that sight was something which proceeded from the eye to the object seen. "All eyes direct their rays On him, and crowds turn coxcombs as they gaze."
    • Ray To array.
    • Ray To mark with long lines; to streak.
    • Ray To mark, stain, or soil; to streak; to defile. "The filth that did it ray ."
    • Ray To send forth or shoot out; to cause to shine out; as, to ray smiles.
    • v. i Ray To shine, as with rays.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Ray Kroc bought McDonalds for $2.7 million in 1961 from the McDonald brothers
    • n ray Light emitted in a given direction from a luminous body; a line of light, or, more generally, of radiant energy; technically, the straight line perpendicular to the wave-front in the propagation of a light- or heat-wave. For different waves the rays may have different wave-lengths. Thus, in a pencil or beam of light, which is conceived to be made up of an indefinite number of rays, the rays all have the same wave-length if the beam is monoenromatic; but if it is of white light, the wave-lengths of the rays vary by insensible degrees from that of red to that of violet light. (See radiant energy (under energy), spectrum.) A collection of parallel rays constitutes a beam; a collection of diverging or converging rays a pencil.
    • n ray A beam of intellectual light.
    • n ray A stripe; streak; line.
    • n ray In geometry, an unlimited straight line. As it is desirable to give the line different names according as it is conceived
    • n ray In botany:
    • n ray One of the branches or pedicels in an umbel.
    • n ray The marginal part as opposed to the central part or disk in a head, umbel, or other flower-cluster, when there is a difference of structure, as in many Compositæ and in wild hydrangeas.
    • n ray A ray-flower.
    • n ray A radius. See medullary rays, under medullary.
    • n ray One of the ray-like processes or arms of the Radiata, as of a starfish; a radiated or radiating part or organ; an actinomere. See cuts under Asterias and Asteriidæ.
    • n ray One of the hard spinous or soft jointed processes which support and serve to extend the fin of a fish; a part of the skeleton of the fin; specifically, one which is articulated, thus contradistinguished from a hard or inarticulated one called specifically a spine; a fin-ray.
    • n ray In entomology, one of the longitudinal nervures or veins of an insect's wing.
    • n ray plural In heraldry:
    • n ray Long indentations or dents by which a heraldic line is broken, whether dividing two parts of the escutcheon or bounding any ordinary. Compare radiant, 3 .
    • n ray A representation of rays, whether issuing from the sun or from a corner of the escutcheon, a cloud, or an ordinary. They are sometimes straight, sometimes waving, and sometimes alternately straight and waving; it is in the last form that they are usually represented when surrounding the sun.
    • n ray Bundles of straight or collecting tubules of the kidney contained in the cortex; the pyramids of Ferrein. See tubule.
    • ray To mark with long lines; form rays of or in.
    • ray To shoot forth or emit; cause to shine out.
    • ray To stripe.
    • ray To shine forth or out as in rays.
    • n ray One of the elasmobranchiate fishes constituting the genus Raia, recognized by the flattened body, which becomes a broad disk from its union with the extremely broad and fleshy pectorals, which are joined to each other before or at the snout, and extend behind the two sides of the abdomen as far as the base of the ventrals, resembling the rays of a fan.
    • n ray Any member of the order Hypotremi, Batoidei, or Raiæ, such as the sting-ray, eagle-ray, skate, torpedo, etc. See cuts under Elasmobranchii, skate, sting-ray, and torpedo.
    • n ray Array; order; arrangement; rank; dress.
    • ray To array.
    • ray To beray with dirt or filth; daub; defile.
    • n ray A kind of striped cloth.
    • n ray A kind of dance.
    • n ray A certain disease of sheep, also called scab, shab, or rubbers.
    • n ray Same as roy.
    • n ray In geometry: The aggregate of all points of the straight a situated on one and the same side of a point O of adjective
    • n ray One of the two parts of a straightest (great circle) determined by a point of it O with its opposite O′ .
    • n ray See obscure rays, radiation, and radioactivity.
    • n ray plural Emblems of light and glory embroidered around monograms of the holy name and sacred personages.
    • n ray The cathode rays, the X- or Röntgen rays, and the various types of radiation discovered in the study of the electric discharge in gases (see cathode rays) and of radioactivity. See radioactivity. Obscure rays are detected by their action on the photographic plate, their heating effect, their power of exciting luminescence or of producing other rays, and their electrical effects. Owing to the recent and very rapid development of this branch of physics the nomenclature of obscure radiation is somewhat confused. The term Hittorf rays is applied indiscriminately to all rays observed when the electric discharge passes through a tube with two terminals, a Hittorf tube, at high vacuum. When in a vacuum-tube the cathode is perforated, or consists of a tube, portions of the stream of positively charged ions from the anode pass through the opening. These form rays which enter the tube behind the cathode and which are known as canal rays or, after their discoverer, as Goldstein rays. They differ from cathode rays in having smaller velocity, and greater mass of the moving particles, in bearing a positive electric charge, and in being deflected in the opposite direction by a magnetic or electrostatic field. If cathode rays are allowed to fall upon a window of aluminium that forms part of the wall of the vacuum-tube within which they are produced, those which penetrate the metal and enter the outer air are called Lenard rays. Lenard showed that such rays suffer diffusion in passing through the air, like light in a turbid medium, and that, like the cathode rays within the tube, they are deflected by a magnet. In 1896 Becquerel discovered the spontaneous emission of obscure rays of the corpuscular type in substances containing uranium, and the name Becquerel rays is now applied to such rays from any radioactive material. These rays are also called uranium, thorium, radium, polonium, or actinium rays respectively, according to the radioactive element to which they are due. See radium, uranium. It was later shown by Rutherford that there are at least three distinct types of such radiation which may be distinguished from each other by their power of penetrating layers of metal and by their behavior in the magnetic field. The first of these, α-rays, have the least power of penetration. They are capable of ionizing gases and thus imparting to them the power of conducting electricity. They are deflected by the magnetic and electrostatic fields, but in the opposite direction from cathode rays, and are supposed to consist of a stream of positively charged particles of comparatively large mass traveling with a speed of about one tenth as great as the velocity of light. The α-rays affect the photographic plate and are capable of producing fluorescence and phosphorescence. The second, the β-rays, have somewhat greater penetrating power and intense photographic action. They are deflected by the magnetic field in the same sense as cathode rays and are supposed to consist of a Stream of negatively charged particles having a mass equal to of an atom of hydrogen with velocities comparable to that of light. β-rays produce fluorescence and phosphorescence, ionize gases, and may be detected by their electrical action. The third type of rays discovered by Villard, the γ-rays, have extraordinary penetrating power, being able to pass through several centimeters of lead. They are not affected by the magnetic field, in which respect they resemble ordinary X-rays. The γ-rays are regarded as electromagnetic disturbances produced by the action of the β-rays, just as the X-rays are produced by the action of cathode rays. Like the other types they produce ionization of gases and fluorescence and phosphorescence. See radioactivity. When X-rays meet an obstacle, as a metal surface, reflection in the ordinary sense of the word does not occur, hut rays differing in certain respects from the incident rays are diffusely emitted from the surfaces upon which the X-rays impinge. These rays were termed secondary rays by Sagnac, who investigated their properties. They are also occasionally called Sagnac rays, after their discoverer. In the same manner, bodies upon which secondary rays, or S-rays, fall emit a further modified type of radiation known as tertiary rays. Aside from the ordinary radiation from wires heated to incandescence by the electric current, rays similar to those emitted by radioactive bodies have been described. Tommasina claims to have distinguished three distinct types of rays, α-, β-, and γ-rays, having different powers of penetration and producing different effects upon a charged body. It is claimed that these socalled pyro-rays produce ionization of gases and excite fluorescence. In 1903, Blondlot announced the discovery of a new type of radiation originally obtained by filtering the rays from an X-ray tube through aluminium or black paper. These rays, which Blondlot terms N-rays (from Nancy, in France, where he discovered them), differ from X-rays in exhibiting the phenomena of polarization, refraction, and reflection. They were subsequently detected in various sources of light, properly screened, such as the Welsbach burner, an ordinary gas flame, a piece of metal heated to incandescence, and even sunlight. The N-rays are said to pass readily through wood, paper, and metal, but to be absorbed by rock-salt, fluorite, and glass, to increase the luminescence of fluorescent substances previously excited, but to be without effect on photographic plates. Their wave-length, according to Sagnac, is about 0.2 millimeters. In spite of the detailed description of the methods of obtaining N-rays and the definite reports concerning their properties, many physicists have failed altogether to reproduce Blondlot's results and the existence of the Blondlot rays is no longer credited.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The Manta Ray is the largest of all fish.
    • n Ray array
    • v.t Ray to array
    • n Ray a line of light or heat: a beam or gleam of intellectual light: a radiating part of any structure:
    • v.t Ray to radiate: to furnish with rays
    • v.i Ray to shine out
    • n Ray a popular name for such flat, cartilaginous fishes as the skate, thornback, and torpedo
    • n Ray the scab—a disease of sheep.
    • n Ray (mus.) the second note of the diatonic scale.
    • n Ray (bot.) the outer part of a flower-cluster
    • v.t Ray (Shak.) to bedaub
    • ***

Quotations

  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “Example sheds a genial ray which men are apt to borrow, so first improve yourself today, and then your friends tomorrow.”
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    Ralph%20Waldo%20Emerson
    “Flowers are a proud assertion that a ray of beauty out-values all the utilities of the world.”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “A ray of sunshine, a balmy breeze Are a gift from God above, And He also gives us faithful friends. To warm our hearts with love.”
  • Washington Irving
    Washington%20Irving
    “Rising genius always shoots out its rays from among the clouds, but these will gradually roll away and disappear as it ascends to its steady luster.”
  • Walter Benjamin
    Walter%20Benjamin
    “Like ultraviolet rays memory shows to each man in the book of life a script that invisibly and prophetically glosses the text.”
  • Sarah Knowles Bolton
    Sarah Knowles Bolton
    “Be glad today. Tomorrow may bring tears. Be brave today. The darkest night will pass. And golden rays will usher in the dawn.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. OF. raier, raiier, rayer, L. radiare, to irradiate. See Ray (n.), and cf. Radiate

Usage

In literature:

There's Raye & Hemming.
"The Silver Maple" by Marian Keith
You may win it yourself, Ray, if you like!
"The Madcap of the School" by Angela Brazil
What a journey these rays have had!
"The Children's Book of Stars" by G.E. Mitton
Toward evening a ray of sunshine burst joyously into the bank, and threw a bright cheerful glow over the office.
"The Boy Broker" by Frank A. Munsey
One of them came down the red ray, and attacked him.
"The Pygmy Planet" by John Stewart Williamson
Even should you get free I still have my ray-tube.
"The Great Dome on Mercury" by Arthur Leo Zagat
He has given it the name of the X rays.
"Little Masterpieces of Science:" by Various
The other searchers spread their rays; the rocks all about me were lighted.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science September 1930" by Various
Keep your ray-gun ready.
"The Bluff of the Hawk" by Anthony Gilmore
A ray snapped out at him, a ray with a greenish tinge.
"Pirates of the Gorm" by Nat Schachner
Even a field ray tube.
"The Death-Traps of FX-31" by Sewell Peaslee Wright
The first rays of the twilight appeared on the horizon above which it would soon peer.
"The Voyages and Adventures of Captain Hatteras" by Jules Verne
The black craft's heavy ray-guns broke into life.
"Loot of the Void" by Edwin K. Sloat
No rays of light, no supernatural agencies could be seen or fancied.
"Lords of the Stratosphere" by Arthur J. Burks
Nearer and nearer to them came the deadly ray.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science, March 1930" by Various
The ray followed us, keeping the metal at a cherry red just above Ray's hands.
"Astounding Stories, April, 1931" by Various
But the mood could not last: the first ray of light from the outside world sent shivers of anticipation along their spines.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science, December 1930" by Various
But one does not hang his pictures where the sun's rays will fall on them.
"The Painter in Oil" by Daniel Burleigh Parkhurst
Suddenly trembling with horror, he looked about for anything to show that Helen had perished by the ray.
"Astounding Stories, July, 1931" by Various
Surely you must feel all squiggly down your back whenever Ray hugs and kisses you?
"Banked Fires" by E. W. (Ethel Winifred) Savi
***

In poetry:

The rays of the Almighty's face
No sinner's eye might then receive;
Only the meekest man found grace
To see His skirts and live.
"Thirteenth Sunday After Trinity" by John Keble
How could he rest? even then he trod
The threshold of the world unknown;
Already, from the seat of God,
A ray upon his garments shone;--
"The Death Of Schiller" by William Cullen Bryant
How oft, to greet me, send a ray
From those dark depths, my heaven,
Millioned with thought-fires to my look
Sweet answers hath she given.
"Immortal Eve - IV" by Manmohan Ghose
"And thus, my love, when I shall sink
Into the dark and dread Unknown,
'Tis surely just for us to think,
Some rays shall shine for thee alone.
"A Sunset" by Thomas Frederick Young
Blest are the souls who find a place
Within the temple of thy grace;
There they behold thy gentler rays,
And seek thy face, and learn thy praise.
"Psalm 84 part 1" by Isaac Watts
"Then doubt me not—oh! who can say
"But that this dream may yet come true
"And my blest spirit drink thy ray,
"Till it becomes all heavenly too?
"The Loves of the Angels" by Thomas Moore

In news:

We have gone from reel to reel to VHS to DVD to Blu Ray, and now there's a new sheriff in town – Streaming video.
I have swam with sharks, I have swam with Sting Rays, and that was a real "rush" type of a thrill, but swimming with Dolphins was seriously one of the most awesome experiences of my life.
Music fans wait outside the Barclays Center before Jay-Z performs on Friday, Sept 28, 2012, the arena's first event AP/Henny Ray Abrams.
Maggie Rodriguez talks with financial adviser Ray Martin about investing in a tenuous market.
In this Tuesday, March 10, 2009 photo, Ray Young, of Dover, Ark.
The application was made by Phyllis Lee-Ray, and the bed-and-breakfast will be located at 510 Washington St.
Walter Raymond "Ray" Beecher passed away Friday, June 1, 2012, at the Valle Vista nursing home in Lewistown, Montana.
And Mrs Phillip Perry Blount of Statham, announce the engagement of their daughter Lauren Elizabeth Blount of Statham, to Wesley Ray Belcher, of Covington, son of Teresa Belcher of Madison.
Dental x-rays may have benign tumor risk.
ENIGMA — Bennie Ray Sumner Sr. 69, died Wednesday, Nov 14, 2012, at his home surrounded by his family.
Ray Monk, Author Free Press $40 (592p) ISBN 978-0-7432-1215-1.
'A League of Their Own' and a bevy of 'Looney Tunes' theatrical shorts have received Blu-ray upgrades.
Blu-ray players are becoming a commodity in the sense that a $78 Blu-ray player can be bought at Walmart.
(AP) – Former Miami safety Ray-Ray Armstrong has enrolled at Faulkner University and hopes to play for the NAIA team.
Former Miami defensive back Ray-Ray Armstrong had a tumultuous 2011 season.
***

In science:

The energy resolution for the γ -ray detection is investigated using the 59.54 keV γ -ray line from 241Am and the 122.06 keV γ -ray line from 57Co.
Gamma-ray Polarimetry
This gives the conception of the ray, introduced to Quantum Mechanics by Hermann Weyl : a physical state does not correspond uniquely to a normed state ϕ ∈ H, but it is uniquely described by a ray, two states belong to the same ray if they differ by a constant phase factor. 4 J. v.
Generally covariant Quantum Mechanics
The X-ray powers of these sources are estimated by using a previously known correlation between X-ray luminosity and X-ray-tooptical flux ratio.
Discovery of optically faint obscured quasars with Virtual Observatory tools
Their X-ray powers have been estimated by using a previously known correlation between X-ray luminosity and X-ray-tooptical flux ratio.
Discovery of optically faint obscured quasars with Virtual Observatory tools
Figure 6: a) Histogram of X-rays for C2F6 target. The X-ray spectrum with the target removed is also plotted. b) GAPS event topology in the C2F6 gas target for a 3 X-ray and a charged pion star tag (π*).
Accelerator Testing of the General Antiparticle Spectrometer, a Novel Approach to Indirect Dark Matter Detection
Figure 8: a) The Sulfur integrated X-ray spectrum for events with ≥2 ladder X-ray transitions and ≥4 total energy deposits. b) An example of a two ladder X-ray event.
Accelerator Testing of the General Antiparticle Spectrometer, a Novel Approach to Indirect Dark Matter Detection
Individual measurements of all of these X-ray properties, together with their observational parameters, like the total number of X-ray counts, the exposure time, the off-axis angle, together with their corresponding X-ray source ID, are listed in Table 1 for all 107 ob jects.
Probing the Balance of AGN and Star-Forming Activity in the Local Universe with ChaMP
Figure 3 shows the distributions of the X-ray counts, the 0.5 − 8 keV unabsorbed X-ray fluxes, the best-fit X-ray photon indices Γ and the intrinsic neutral hydrogen column densities NH .
Probing the Balance of AGN and Star-Forming Activity in the Local Universe with ChaMP
Because the efficiency in producing an X-ray accretion flow and in driving the outflows depends on the BH mass and its accretion rate, it is important to understand the interdependence of these parameters on the X-ray properties, particularly the shape of the X-ray spectrum, i.e., the X-ray photon index Γ.
Probing the Balance of AGN and Star-Forming Activity in the Local Universe with ChaMP
Observe that if Γ is a ray of minimal growth, then there is a sector Λ with and central axis Γ such that all rays in Λ are rays of minimal growth for AD .
On the completeness of generalized eigenfunctions of elliptic cone operators
Since rays of minimal growth are essential in the context of the present paper, we will proceed to review the results from [10, 11, 12, 16] about when a ray Γ ⊂ C is a ray of minimal growth for a closed extension of an elliptic cone operator.
On the completeness of generalized eigenfunctions of elliptic cone operators
The line which support this ray is called a h-mid-point line and the ray itself is a h-mid-point ray.
Coordinates for a new triangular tiling of the hyperbolic plane
As an additional selection experiment, the list of WR candidates was cross-correlated with archival X-ray point-source catalogs, which increases the WR detection rate of the broad color space to ≈40%; ten new WR X-ray sources have been found, in addition to a previously unrecognized X-ray counterpart to a known WR.
Red Eyes on Wolf-Rayet Stars: 60 New Discoveries via Infrared Color Selection
The measurement of the X-ray pulse delays induced by the orbital motion, and the discovery of an X-ray eclipse lasting ∼1.3 hours, allowed us to derive the X-ray mass function as well as the system’s inclination (79◦ < i < 84◦).
The progenitor of a type Ia supernova with a short delay time?
This type of radio jet is associated with a transition from a hard power-law X-ray spectrum to a softer power-law X-ray spectrum, and later, a thermal disk blackbody dominated X-ray spectrum.
Very High Angular Resolution Science with the Square Kilometre Array
***