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rake

Definitions

  • Polly raking her garden
    Polly raking her garden
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v rake scrape gently "graze the skin"
    • v rake gather with a rake "rake leaves"
    • v rake level or smooth with a rake "rake gravel"
    • v rake move through with or as if with a rake "She raked her fingers through her hair"
    • v rake examine hastily "She scanned the newspaper headlines while waiting for the taxi"
    • v rake sweep the length of "The gunfire raked the coast"
    • n rake a long-handled tool with a row of teeth at its head; used to move leaves or loosen soil
    • n rake degree of deviation from a horizontal plane "the roof had a steep pitch"
    • n rake a dissolute man in fashionable society
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Flop-over hay rake Flop-over hay rake

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Rake (Mining) A fissure or mineral vein traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so; -- called also rake-vein.
    • n Rake A loose, disorderly, vicious man; a person addicted to lewdness and other scandalous vices; a debauchee; a roué. "An illiterate and frivolous old rake ."
    • Rake A toothed machine drawn by a horse, -- used for collecting hay or grain; a horserake.
    • Rake An implement consisting of a headpiece having teeth, and a long handle at right angles to it, -- used for collecting hay, or other light things which are spread over a large surface, or for breaking and smoothing the earth.
    • n Rake (Naut) The inclination of anything from a perpendicular direction; as, the rake of a roof, a staircase, etc.
    • Rake To act the rake; to lead a dissolute, debauched life.
    • Rake To collect or draw together with laborious industry; to gather from a wide space; to scrape together; as, to rake together wealth; to rake together slanderous tales; to rake together the rabble of a town.
    • Rake To collect with a rake; as, to rake hay; -- often with up; as, he raked up the fallen leaves.
    • Rake (Mil) To enfilade; to fire in a direction with the length of; in naval engagements, to cannonade, as a ship, on the stern or head so that the balls range the whole length of the deck.
    • v. i Rake To incline from a perpendicular direction; as, a mast rakes aft.
    • Rake To pass a rake over; to scrape or scratch with a rake for the purpose of collecting and clearing off something, or for stirring up the soil; as, to rake a lawn; to rake a flower bed.
    • Rake To pass with violence or rapidity; to scrape along. "Pas could not stay, but over him did rake ."
    • Rake To scrape or scratch across; to pass over quickly and lightly, as a rake does. "Like clouds that rake the mountain summits."
    • Rake To search through; to scour; to ransack. "The statesman rakes the town to find a plot."
    • Rake To use a rake, as for searching or for collecting; to scrape; to search minutely. "One is for raking in Chaucer for antiquated words."
    • Rake To walk about; to gad or ramble idly.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n rake An implement of wood or iron, or partly of both, with teeth or tines for drawing or scraping things together, evening a surface of loose materials, etc. In its simplest form, for use by hand, it consists of a bar in which the teeth are set, and which is fixed firmly at right angles to a handle. Rakes are made in many ways for a great variety of purposes, and the teeth are inserted either perpendicularly or at a greater or less inclination, according to requirement. Their most prominent uses are in agriculture and gardening, for drawing together hay or grain in the field, leveling beds, etc. For farm-work on a large scale horse-rakes of many forms are used; the above figures represent the so-called sulky-rake.
    • n rake An instrument of similar form and use with a blade instead of teeth, either entire, as a gamblers' or a maltsters' rake, or notched so as to form teeth, as a furriers' rake. See the quotations.
    • rake To gather, clear, smooth, or stir with or as if with a rake; treat with a rake, or something that serves the same purpose: as, to rake up hay; to rake a bed in a garden; to rake the fire with a poker or raker.
    • rake To collect as if by the use of a rake; gather assiduously or laboriously; draw or scrape together, up, or in.
    • rake To make minute search in, as if with a rake; look over or through carefully; ransack: as, to rake all history for examples.
    • rake To pass along with or as if with a scraping motion; impinge lightly upon in moving; hence, to pass over swiftly; scour.
    • rake Milit., to fire upon, as a ship, so that the shot will pass lengthwise along the deck; fire in the direction of the length of, as a file of soldiers or a parapet; enfilade.
    • rake To cover with earth raked together; bury. See to rake up, below.
    • rake To draw from oblivion or obscurity, as something forgotten or abandoned; bring to renewed attention; resuscitate; revive: used in a more or less opprobrious sense: as, to rake up a forgotten quarrel.
    • rake To use a rake; work with a rake, especially in drawing together hay or grain.
    • rake To make search with or as if with a rake; seek diligently for something; pry; peer here and there.
    • n rake A course, way, road, or path.
    • rake To take a course; move; go; proceed.
    • rake In hunting:
    • rake Of a hawk, to range wildly; fly wide of the game.
    • rake Of a dog, to follow a wrong course. See the quotation.
    • rake To incline from the perpendicular or the horizontal, as the mast, stem, or stern of a ship, the rafters of a roof, the end of a tool, etc. See the noun.
    • rake To give a rake to; cause to incline or slope.
    • n rake Inclination or slope away from a perpendicular or a horizontal line. The rake of a ship's mast is its inclination backward, or rarely (in some peculiar rigs) forward; that of its stem or its stern (the fore rake and the rake aft of the ship) is the slope inward from the upper works to the keel: also called hang. (See cut under patamar.) The rake of a roof is its pitch or slope from the ridge to the eaves. The rake of a saw-tooth is the angle of inclination which a straight line drawn through the middle of the base of the tooth and its point forms with a radius also drawn through the middle of the base of the tooth; of a cutting-tool, the slope backward and downward from the edge on either side or both sides. Rake in a grinding-mill is a sloping or want of balance of the runner, producing undue pressure at one edge.
    • n rake In coal-mining, a series of thin layers of ironstone lying so near each other that they can all be worked together.
    • n rake An idle, dissolute person; one who goes about in search of vicious pleasure; a libertine; an idle person of fashion.
    • rake To play the part of a rake; lead a dissolute, debauched life; practise lewdness.
    • n rake A lean, meager person.
    • n rake A local miners' term in Derbyshire, England, for veins of galena in joints in limestone, as contrasted with fault-fissures. The joints are often enlarged by the solution and removal of the walls, but they may be and usually are limited or cut off sharply by an underlying stratum. Also written rake-vein. Compare gash-vein.
    • rake In turpentining, to clear combustible material away from (the base of a tree), as a precaution against fire.
    • rake In salt-making, to remove the salt from (the evaporating-pans) to the draining-table.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Rake rāk an instrument with teeth or pins for smoothing earth, &c.: any tool consisting of a flat blade at right angles to a long handle
    • v.t Rake to scrape with something toothed: to draw together: to gather with difficulty: to level with a rake: to search diligently: to pass over violently and swiftly:
    • v.i Rake to work with a rake: to search minutely
    • adj Rake such as to rake, as a raking fire
    • n Rake rāk
    • n Rake rāk (naut.) the projection of the stem and stern of a ship beyond the extremities of the keel: the inclination of a mast from the perpendicular
    • v.i Rake to incline from the perpendicular or the horizontal
    • v.t Rake to cause to incline or slope
    • n Rake rāk a dissolute person: a libertine
    • v.i Rake to lead a debauched life, esp. to make a practice of lechery
    • v.i Rake rāk (prov.) to wander, to take a course, proceed:
    • v.t Rake (naut.) to fire into, as a ship, lengthwise: to inter or hide, as by raking earth over a body
    • v.i Rake rāk (hunting) of a hawk, to fly wide of the game: of a dog, to follow a wrong course
    • ***

Quotations

  • Marcelene Cox
    Marcelene Cox
    “Parents are often so busy with the physical rearing of children that they miss the glory of parenthood, just as the grandeur of the trees is lost when raking leaves.”
  • Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore%20Roosevelt
    “The men with the muck-rake are often indispensable to the well-being of society, but only if they know when to stop raking the muck.”
  • Thomas B. Macaulay
    Thomas%20B.%20Macaulay
    “He was a rake among scholars, and a scholar among rakes.”
  • Daniel Defoe
    Daniel Defoe
    “Wealth, howsoever got, in England makes lords of mechanics, gentlemen of rakes; Antiquity and birth are needless here; 'Tis impudence and money makes a peer.”

Idioms

Rake over old coals - (UK) If you go back to old problems and try to bring them back, making trouble for someone, you are raking over old coals.
***
Rake someone over the coals - (USA) If you rake someone over the coals, you criticize or scold them severely.
***
Tall enough to hunt geese with a rake - (USA) A person who's much taller than a person of average height.
***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
AS. race,; akin to OD. rake, D. reek, OHG. rehho, G. rechen, Icel. reka, a shovel, and to Goth. rikan, to heap up, collect, and perhaps to Gr. 'ore`gein to stretch out, and E. rack, to stretch. Cf. Reckon
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
M. E. raken—A.S. racian, to run; confused with M. E. raiken—Ice. reika, to wander.

Usage

In literature:

There were three hoes, and as many rakes.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 16, No. 96, October 1865" by Various
The eight 'Rake's Progress' pictures had fetched but twenty-two guineas each.
"Art in England" by Dutton Cook
The next day she returned with spade and rake, and her mysterious package.
"Some Three Hundred Years Ago" by Edith Gilman Brewster
Almost at the same instant, the Plantagenet closed on his weather quarter and raked.
"The Two Admirals" by J. Fenimore Cooper
Ashes were raked smooth on the hearth at bedtime on Hallowe'en, and the next morning examined for footprints.
"The Book of Hallowe'en" by Ruth Edna Kelley
Six hay rakes, two scythes and sneaths, cross-cut saw, and a sheep hook.
"Highways & Byways in Sussex" by E.V. Lucas
The bed is then carefully raked and smoothed and planted.
"Agriculture for Beginners" by Charles William Burkett
A patch of brown, which had been skimmed bare by one raking paw, made him shout.
"Storm Over Warlock" by Andre Norton
There were three men at work at the Hortons' place, raking leaves and uncovering the bushes in the rose garden.
"Peggy in Her Blue Frock" by Eliza Orne White
The rake, or 'wild gallant,' had made his first appearance in Fletcher, and had shown himself more nakedly after the Restoration.
"English Literature and Society in the Eighteenth Century" by Leslie Stephen
To be sure, Polly smoothed it off with a rake and asked me if it wasn't nice; and I said it was.
"Little Masterpieces of American Wit and Humor" by Various
The Belgians place no limit upon the number of elephants one may shoot, just so they get their rake-off.
"In Africa" by John T. McCutcheon
Further behind was Dan'l Copestake, who came panting up with the longest handled rake just as Dexter was nearing the bank.
"Quicksilver" by George Manville Fenn
You'd no business to hit him with that rake shaft.
"Syd Belton" by George Manville Fenn
Gradually the sails of a ship with taut raking masts became visible.
"James Braithwaite, the Supercargo" by W.H.G. Kingston
This raking fire threw the slaver's crew into considerable confusion, and before they had recovered from it, he again kept away.
"The Three Lieutenants" by W.H.G. Kingston
The wind 's pilin' in through this 'ere school-house on a clean sea-rake.
"Vesty of the Basins" by Sarah P. McLean Greene
Raking in the snow, he discovered that clothing had been burned, for he found some buttons with the name of a Seattle firm.
"Policing the Plains" by R.G. MacBeth
Swinging across the bow of the "Congress," she raked her enemy twice.
"The Naval History of the United States" by Willis J. Abbot
We can train the gun to rake its entire width.
"As It Was in the Beginning" by Philip Verrill Mighels
***

In poetry:

Still idle, with a busy air,
Deep whimsies to contrive;
The gayest valetudinaire,
Most thinking rake, alive.
"Farewell to London" by Alexander Pope
A spade and rake for comrades,
the smell of rain-wet mould,-
and every time we turn a clod
we turn a mint of gold.
"A Little Bit Of Garden" by William Henry Ogilvie
Gather the leaves with rakes,
The burning autumn, Springfield,
Gather them in with rakes
Lest one of them turn to gold.
"Do You Remember Springfield?" by Stephen Vincent Benet
"My face grows sharp with the torment;
Look! my arms are skin and bone!
Rake open the red coals, goodman,
And the witch shall have her own.
"The Changeling ( From The Tent on the Beach )" by John Greenleaf Whittier
Like clouds that rake the mountain-summits,
Or waves that own no curbing hand,
How fast has brother followed brother,
From sunshine to the sunless land!
"Extempore Effusion upon the Death of James Hogg" by William Wordsworth
It’s only a sod, but it rakes the ould pain —
The ould love in me heart that still lingers,
That Time has been soothing and docth’ring in vain;
And now he must soothe it and heal it again
Wid his kindly and gentle ould fingers.
"Only A Sod" by Henry Lawson

In news:

Bring rakes, gloves and weeding tools.
The newly engaged "Modern Family" star is the highest-paid actress in television, raking in $19 million between May 2011 and May 2012, according to data that Forbes magazine released Wednesday.
We raked leaves from the gutters on our streets, helping the runoff seep underground or flow toward the sea.
I want to thank the Dover Middle School students and a parent who came and raked my leaves for their the community service project.
Labor Day has come and gone and soon Minnesotans will be raking leaves and preparing for winter.
The Aqueduct racino may be raking in money for the state, but it is falling short in terms of taking care of its own backyard, a Daily News investigation has found.
'David Hockney: A Rake's Progress' provides a bright bit of fun short on authenticity .
Backyard football rakes in big bucks for local charity.
City of Clarkston Public Works Director Jim Martin said it's important to rake, collect and bag your leaves so they don't blow into the streets.
Fences pulled out, grass getting raked.
It happened on Rake Road in Centre Township on Wednesday.
Amid the weed trimmers, lawn mowers and leaf blowers tidying up two Joplin neighborhoods on Sunday morning was one small plastic blue rake.
Backyard football rakes in big bucks for local charity.
Airlines Rake In Big Bucks From 'Extras'.
Calculating song royalties is a tricky business, but it's clear that these rights holders are raking it in.
***

In science:

We call the vertex v1 the top of the rake and the other vertices the common vertices.
Difference between minimum light numbers of sigma-game and lit-only sigma-game
Let G be a rake with k teeth and an n-hand le; see Fig. 4.
Difference between minimum light numbers of sigma-game and lit-only sigma-game
Let H ′ be the rake with top u1 obtained from G by removing S = NG (u2) ∩ (V (G) \ V (H )).
Difference between minimum light numbers of sigma-game and lit-only sigma-game
Lemma 19 to get that there exists R ⊆ U ∪ V such that x Observe that both G[U ∪ {u}] and G[V ∪ {u}] are rakes with top u.
Difference between minimum light numbers of sigma-game and lit-only sigma-game
This two-stage approach is sometimes called the trivial two-stage algorithm; we refer to this two-stage algorithm as the rake-and-winnow approach.
Improved Combinatorial Group Testing Algorithms for Real-World Problem Sizes
We can then use this matrix as the first round in a two-round rake-and-winnow testing strategy, where the second round simply involves our individual testing of the at most d + k samples left as potential positive samples from the first rou nd.
Improved Combinatorial Group Testing Algorithms for Real-World Problem Sizes
This corollary implies that we can construct a rake-and-winnow algorithm where the first stage involves performing O(d log (n/d)) tests, which is within a (small) constant factor of the information theoretic lower bound, and the second round involves individually testing at most 2d samples.
Improved Combinatorial Group Testing Algorithms for Real-World Problem Sizes
Another feature of the author’s method of search results raking is the constant training of the system, since mostly all of its users may be considered as teaching experts.
A Search Relevancy Tuning Method Using Expert Results Content Evaluation
***