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pronunciation

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n pronunciation the way a word or a language is customarily spoken "the pronunciation of Chinese is difficult for foreigners","that is the correct pronunciation"
    • n pronunciation the manner in which someone utters a word "they are always correcting my pronunciation"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Pronunciation The act of uttering with articulation; the act of giving the proper sound and accent; utterance; as, the pronunciation of syllables of words; distinct or indistinct pronunciation.
    • Pronunciation (Rhet) The art of manner of uttering a discourse publicly with propriety and gracefulness; -- now called delivery.
    • Pronunciation The mode of uttering words or sentences.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n pronunciation The act of pronouncing, or uttering with articulation; the manner of uttering words or letters; specifically, the manner of uttering words which is held to be correct, as based on the practice of the best speakers: as, the pronunciation of a name; distinct or indistinct pronunciation. Abbreviated pron.
    • n pronunciation The art or manner of uttering a discourse with euphony and grace: now called delivery.
    • n pronunciation Eclectic pronunciation (of Greek), a system of pronunciation of ancient Greek which seeks to approximate to the actual ancient pronunciation. It agrees on the whole with the stricter continental system, and pronounces the diphthongs so that each element can he heard separately.
    • n pronunciation English pronunciation (of Greek), a system of pronouncing Greek with the English sounds of the corresponding Latin letters. This system is now little used in the United States.
    • n pronunciation English pronunciation (of Latin), a system of pronouncing Latin which follows, with some exceptions, the general analogy of the modern pronunciation of English. The Latin rule of accentuation determines the place of the accent; but the vowels are given their long or short English sounds without regard to their Latin quantity. The English long sounds are used at the end of a word (but final a is usually obscure, as in coma), before another vowel, and at the end of an accented penult or of any unaccented syllable (except penultimate i). The English short sounds are used in a syllable ending with a consonant (except final es, os), before two consonants (not a mute and liquid) and x (= cs), and (excepting u) in an accented antepenult before a single consonant, if not followed by two vowels the former of which is e, i, or y. C, 8, and t, succeeding the accent, are equivalent to sh, and x is sounded like ksh, before two vowels the former of which is an unaccented i or y, unless 8, t, or x precedes. Initial x is pronounced z. If the second of two initial consonants is not h, l, or r, the first (if not 8) is silent. Initial chth and phth are pronounced th. There are no silent vowels. Different authorities vary these rules somewhat, or acknowledge various exceptions to them. The English system of pronunciation of Latin regulates the pronunciation in English of all proper names which have not altered their Latin spelling, and of all Latin words and phrases which have become Anglicized.
    • n pronunciation Erasmian pronunciation (of Greek), a system the earliest champion of which was Erasmus in his treatise “De Recta Latini Græcique Sermonis Pronunciatione” (Basel, 1528). The pronunciation universally in use at that time was the modern Greek as used in the middle ages and supported by Byzantine scholars at the time of the revival of letters. Investigation led to a general conviction among scholars in the west of Europe that the Erasmian theory of the ancient pronunciation was correct; and by the end of the sixteenth century — after considerable controversy, embittered by the fact that the traditional or modern pronunciation was favored by supporters of the papacy, and the Erasmian system by the Reformers — the Erasmian system had come into general use, and the Byzantine method of pronouncing Greek as a living language — also called the Reuchlinian, from Johann Reuchlin, the first great representative of Greek scholarship in Germany — became obsolete in the western schools. In its original form the Erasmian pronunciation was distinguished from the Reuchlinian by giving most of the vowels the sounds which they have in Latin as pronounced by most of the western nations, the Italians, Germans, etc., and by pronouncing the diphthongs so that each vowel in them should preserve its own sound. As, however, this pronunciation closely approached that of the modern western languages in the sixteenth century, it became practically the usage that every nation should pronounce Greek after the analogy of its own language, and, as this has gradually changed in each country, the pronunciation of Greek has varied with it. In England, in the time of Henry VIII., the pronunciation of vowels was nearly the same as in continental languages. This is evident from the fact that the relation of the Greek vowels, as pronounced by the Erasmian system, to those in the Latin alphabet, as used in the vernacular, is treated by writers of that time as identical in England and on the continent. In England, accordingly, the Erasmian system of pronunciation was insensibly transformed into what is now called the English pronunciation of Greek. The system known as the continental is a partial revision of the Erasmian; that designated as the eclectic restores the Erasmian with some alterations.
    • n pronunciation Modern Greek pronunciation, the pronunciation of Greek, ancient and modern, actually in use in Greece at the present day. The change from the ancient to the present pronunciation was very gradual. The first signs of its prevalence are found in the Bœotian dialect and among Hellenists. Confusion of ει with ι became general about 200-100 b. c., but good speakers still made some difference between these sounds till after 200 a. d. The vowel η began to be frequently confounded with ι about 250-150 b. c., but persons of culture retained the sound of a Latin ē (English ā) for it till 500 a. d. or later. The diphthong αι became identical in sound with ε about 150-200 a. d., and somewhat later οι was pronounced like υ (ü). The vowel υ was distinguished from ι till late Byzantine times. After about 150-200 a. d. αυ, εν came to be sounded as av, ev, and later as af, ef before surds. During the Roman imperial period distinctions of quantity fell more and more into disuse, and merely accentual poetry began as early as the fourth century. In Egypt and other countries outside of Greece these changes of pronunciation began very early, and even the older manuscripts are accordingly full of their effects (iotacisms). This system of pronunciation prevailed throughout the middle ages not only in the East, but in the West till the time of the Reformation. Also called iotacism, itacism, Reuchlinian pronunciation.
    • n pronunciation Reuchlinian pronunciation (of Greek). Same as . See .
    • n pronunciation Roman pronunciation (of Latin), a system of pronunciation of Latin which seeks to approximate to the actual ancient pronunciation. It differs from the stricter continental system chiefly in the sounds given to æ, œ, c, and υ, and in having only one sound for each vowel. In the ancient pronunciation e and o varied in sound, and there are indications that the short vowels in general differed somewhat in quality from the long vowels. The following tables exhibit the leading systems described above.
    • n pronunciation In all these systems κ, λ, μ, ν, π, ρ, σ, τ, φ, and ψ respectively have the same sounds as k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, f, and ps. The sounds given in parentheses represent the stricter continental pronunciation. γ is γ before γ, κ, ξ, χ (γ being γ elsewhere); gh represents the corresponding sonant to ċh (nearly as German g in Wagen as pronounced by most Germans). In the Modern Greek system χ is ch as in German ich, and γ is y before ā and ē sounds (ε, ι, etc.); γκ is ngg, μπ is mb, and ντ is nd. The strict continental system and the Modern Greek pronounce by the written accent, while the English and the modified continental accent Greek by the rule for accent in Latin. The two last-named systems generally make α and ι long in open syllables and short in closed syllables (the English pronunciation treating them as a and i in Latin), but υ is always long.
    • n pronunciation In all these systems b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, ph (= f), q (qu = kw), r, t, th (in thin), have their ordinary English sounds. C and g represent c and g before e, æ, œ, i, and y; c and g represent c and g before other letters than these. The short vowel-sounds are used in the English and in the modified continental system in closed syllables, and the long vowel-sounds in open syllables, regardless of the ancient quantity. The Roman system gives the same quality of sound to a short vowel as to a long, but makes it more rapid in pronunciation. In continental pronunciation s is by some pronounced z between two vowels, and in the modified system final ěs is pronounced āz, and final os ōs. For the pronunciation of c, s, and t as sh, and of x as ksh or z, see . Pronounce ü as in German, or as French u.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Pronunciation act or mode of pronouncing: art of speaking distinctly and correctly: utterance
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. pronunciation, L. pronunciatio,. See Pronounce
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr. prononcer—L. pronuntiārepro, forth, nunciāre, to announce—nuntius, a messenger.

Usage

In literature:

Let it be in some measure a general observation that the composition ought to be modeled on the manner of pronunciation.
"The Training of a Public Speaker" by Grenville Kleiser
Hawkins had some New England idioms, but they were well overlaid by a Western pronunciation.
"The Wit and Humor of America, Volume I. (of X.)" by Various
Hair whose wonderful pronunciation of words of command always amused us.
"The Fife and Forfar Yeomanry" by D. D. Ogilvie
In reading the foreign language, correct pronunciation is not important.
"The Science of Human Nature" by William Henry Pyle
The spelling points to Borrow's ignorance of the relation of pronunciation and orthography.
"George Borrow The Man and His Books" by Edward Thomas
Her pronunciation is not like that, but I can't quite get it.
"The Rebellion of Margaret" by Geraldine Mockler
It is said that in consequence of the people thus refraining from its utterance, the true pronunciation of the name was at last lost.
"Secret Societies And Subversive Movements" by Nesta H. Webster
This position of the lips also gives freedom for pronunciation.
"Resonance in Singing and Speaking" by Thomas Fillebrown
We must, therefore, in all etymological inquiries, have recourse to the Doric manner of pronunciation, to obtain the truth.
"A New System; or, an Analysis of Antient Mythology. Volume I." by Jacob Bryant
About this time he seems to have accommodated his name to English pronunciation, and to have always written it Swartz.
"Pioneers and Founders or, Recent Workers in the Mission field" by Charlotte Mary Yonge
The loss of the ancient pronunciation is especially in the way of such studies.
"The Myths of the New World" by Daniel G. Brinton
She was not a native of the village, and signified her superior gentility by a mincing pronunciation.
"Six to Sixteen" by Juliana Horatia Ewing
The sheikh's name is Mohommod-bin-Nasr Nakai; this is the first time we heard this pronunciation of the Prophet's name.
"Southern Arabia" by Theodore Bent
He then gave out the stanzas in the most strange pronunciation.
"Peter Simple" by Frederick Marryat
She never forgave Buzenval for ridiculing her bad pronunciation of the French language; and when Henry IV.
"Curiosities of Literature, Vol. 1 (of 3)" by Isaac D'Israeli
His voice was deep, his utterance slow, his pronunciation rather affected.
"Fifteen Chapters of Autobiography" by George William Erskine Russell
On Early English Pronunciation, with especial reference to Shakspere and Chaucer.
"The Facts About Shakespeare" by William Allan Nielson
If you observe the relation of spelling to pronunciation, you will have little trouble in pronunciation.
"Practical Grammar and Composition" by Thomas Wood
PRONUNCIATION OF THE VOWELS.
"A Middle High German Primer" by Joseph Wright
Their Romany was full of Russian; their pronunciation puzzled me; they "bit off their words," and used many in a strange or false sense.
"The Gypsies" by Charles G. Leland
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In news:

Scratch a fingernail across a rusty sheet of metal, and compare that to the vibrations caused by variations in the pronunciation of Lubbock.
Three years ago, I wrote a short essay for NPR's Web site about the pronunciation of Iraq.
Finally, a Way Out of the GIF Pronunciation Quagmire .
If I had to guess, I'd say many people would admit to the second pronunciation.
Your Mileage May Vary as Much as the Pronunciation.
Take a closer look at the words students find difficult to access, and you'll see that a majority of them contain one or more letters with variable pronunciations, such as the "o" of on, off, often.
Sports The Ethics (and Pronunciation) of Badminton .
The British Library has completed a new recording of 75 minutes of The Bard 's most famous scenes, speeches and sonnets, all performed in the original pronunciation of Shakespeare's time.
"We are here today to reorder your thinking," said Robert Beatty, his careful pronunciation banishing doubt with every word.
I know what Nathan Lutz has gone through in his life, being called "Luhtz" when the correct pronunciation of his last name is "Lootz.".
Badgers running back Montee Ball, who abruptly changed the pronunciation of his name from MON -tee to mon -TAY earlier this season, is apparently MON -tee once again CBS Sports reports.
The pronunciation of Mariusz Kwiecien's name.
And, Jaala, sorry about the gender and pronunciation thing.
The American Man's Scotch Pronunciation Guide.
A reader asked about the pronunciation of "lived" in the expression " short-lived ".
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In science:

Keywords: string edit distance, Levenshtein distance, stochastic transduction, syntactic pattern recognition, prototype dictionary, spelling correction, string correction, string similarity, string classification, speech recognition, pronunciation modeling, Switchboard corpus.
Learning string edit distance
We illustrate the utility of our approach by applying it to the difficult problem of learning the pronunciation of words in the Switchboard corpus of conversational speech .
Learning string edit distance
In appendix A, we present results for the pronunciation recognition problem in the classic nearest-neighbor paradigm.
Learning string edit distance
In the case of the pronunciation recognition problem considered below, we can learn to recognize the pronunciations of new words from only a single example of the new word’s pronunciation.
Learning string edit distance
We describe one way of modeling variation in the pronunciation of words.
Learning string edit distance
We formalize this pronunciation recognition (PR) problem as follows.
Learning string edit distance
The pronunciation recognition problem may be reduced to the string classification problem: the syntactic words are the classes, the underlying forms are the prototype strings, and the surface forms are the surface strings in need of classification.
Learning string edit distance
It is considered one of the most difficult corpora for speech recognition (and pronunciation recognition) because of the tremendous variability of spontaneous speech.
Learning string edit distance
Note that a uniform p(w|L) and a uniform p(xt |w, L) are not equivalent to a uniform p(w, xt |L) because more frequent words tend to have more pronunciations in the lexicon.
Learning string edit distance
A pronouncing lexicon that is constructed directly from actual pronunciations offers the possibility of better performance than one constructed in traditional ways.
Learning string edit distance
Secondly, it suggests that our techniques may be able to accurately recognize the pronunciations of new words from only a single example of the new word’s pronunciation, without any retraining.
Learning string edit distance
Our results suggest that a significant performance improvement is possible by employing a richer pronouncing lexicon, constructed directly from observed pronunciations, along with an adapted lexical entry model.
Learning string edit distance
This tentative conclusion is supported by Riley and Ljolje, who show an improvement in speech recognizer performance by employing a richer pronunciation model than is customary.
Learning string edit distance
Firstly, our underlying pronouncing lexicon is constructed directly from the observed pronunciations, without any human intervention, while their underlying lexicon is obtained from a hand-built text-to-speech system.
Learning string edit distance
We demonstrate the efficacy of our techniques by correctly recognizing over 85% of the unseen pronunciations of syntactic words in conversational speech.
Learning string edit distance
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