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parasite

Definitions

  • 197. Development of Egg-parasites
    197. Development of Egg-parasites
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n parasite an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant); it obtains nourishment from the host without benefiting or killing the host
    • n parasite a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

PARASITE (Argulus foliaceus) ON TROUT, NAT. SIZE AND MAGNIFIED PARASITE (Argulus foliaceus) ON TROUT, NAT. SIZE AND MAGNIFIED

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Some birds have been know to put ants into their feathers because the ants squirt formic acid, which kills parasites
    • Parasite (Bot) A plant living on or within an animal, and supported at its expense, as many species of fungi of the genus Torrubia.
    • Parasite (Bot) A plant obtaining nourishment immediately from other plants to which it attaches itself, and whose juices it absorbs; -- sometimes, but erroneously, called epiphyte.
    • Parasite (Zoöl) An animal which habitually uses the nest of another, as the cowbird and the European cuckoo.
    • Parasite (Zoöl) An animal which lives during the whole or part of its existence on or in the body of some other animal, feeding upon its food, blood, or tissues, as lice, tapeworms, etc.
    • Parasite (Zoöl) An animal which steals the food of another, as the parasitic jager.
    • Parasite One who frequents the tables of the rich, or who lives at another's expense, and earns his welcome by flattery; a hanger-on; a toady; a sycophant. "Thou, with trembling fear,
      Or like a fawning parasite, obey'st."
      "Parasites were called such smell-feasts as would seek to be free guests at rich men's tables."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The world's smallest winged insect, the Tanzanian parasitic wasp, is smaller than the eye of a housefly.
    • n parasite Originally, one who frequents the tables of the rich and earns his welcome by flattery; hence a hanger-on; a fawning fiatterer; a sycophant.
    • n parasite Specifically In zoö., an animal that lives in or on and at the expense of another animal called technically the host; also, by extension, an animal which lives on or with, but not at the expense of, its host: in the latter sense, more precisely designated inquilince or commensal (see these words)., Particularly, an insect which lives either upon or within another insect during its earlier stages, eating and usually destroying its host. In botany, a plant which grows upon another plant or upon an animal, and feeds upon its juices. See parasitic, and cut under Cercospora. There is scarcely any animal that may not or does not serve as the host of parasites, and some parasites are themselves the hosts of other parasites. (See hyperparasite.) Parasites form no technical group of animals, since representatives of almost any class or order, from protozoans to vertebrates, may be parasitic. Most of the leading divisions of animals, however, include some members, whether genera, families, orders, or even classes, whose habit is extensively or exclusively parasitic. Thus, among protozoans, the Gregarinida are parasites. Among worms, many families, some orders, or even classes, are entirely parasitic, furnishing the most formidable and frequent parasites of man and domestic animals. Very many of the lower crustaceans are parasites, especially upon fishes, mollusks, etc., and upon one another; while some of the highest crustaceans are modified parasites, or commensals, as the little crabs that live in oyster-shells. Among arachnidans, the whole class or order of acarids or mites is essentially parasitic, though including many forms which lead an independent life. Insects furnish many of the parasites, especially of terrestrial animals, as vertebrates, and some are parasites of other insects. One order of insects, the Anoplura or lice, is thoroughly parasitic, and other orders furnish parasitic families or genera. Insects and crustaceans both belong to the phylum Arthropoda, and it may be said that as a rule insects furnish the arthropod parasites of land-animals, and crustaceans those of water-animals, or terrestrial and aquatic “lice” respectively. Few mollusks are parasitic, but Entoconcha mirabilis, a gastropod found in holothurians, is an example. Very few vertebrates are parasites, but hags (Myxine) bore into fishes, fishes of the genus Fierasfer crawl into the intestines of holothurians, and some other fishes exhibit a kind of parasitism. Parasites not constituting any natural division of animals, it follows that, as such, they are not naturally divisible into zoölogical groups. They are, however, conveniently called enloparasites or ectoparasites, according as they live in or on their hosts, or Entozoa and Epizoa, upon the same grounds. According to the extent or degree of their parasitism, they are also known as parasites proper and commensals or inquilines (see above). Among the most remarkable parasites are the males of some species which have their own females as hosts, as among cirripeds. Such males are known as complemental males, one or more of which are carried about by the female in her vulva, they being of insignificant size and to all intents and purposes mere male parts of her. The above-mentioned parasites are exclusive of all those many animals which are parasitic upon plants, as gall-insects and the like; and also of those birds which are parasitic to the extent of laying their eggs in other birds’ nests, requiring their progeny to be hatched and brought up by foster-parents, as cuckoos and cowbirds. See cuts under Cecrops, Entoniscus, Epizoa, Platypsylla, and Stylops
    • n parasite In teratology See autosite.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: More than 40,000 parasites and 250 types of bacteria are exchanged during a typical French kiss
    • n Parasite par′a-sīt one who frequents another's table: a hanger-on: a sycophant: :
    • n Parasite par′a-sīt (bot.) a plant growing upon and nourished by the juices of another
    • n Parasite par′a-sīt (zool.) an animal which lives on another—its host
    • ***

Quotations

  • Kenneth Tynan
    Kenneth Tynan
    “Art is parasitic on life, just as criticism is parasitic on art.”
  • Arthur Schopenhauer
    Arthur%20Schopenhauer
    “The brain may be regarded as a kind of parasite of the organism, a pensioner, as it were, who dwells with the body.”
  • Jose Ortega Y Gasset
    Jose%20Ortega%20Y%20Gasset
    “The cynic, a parasite of civilization, lives by denying it, for the very reason that he is convinced that it will not fail.”
  • George Bernard Shaw
    George%20Bernard%20Shaw
    “Man is the only animal which esteems itself rich in proportion to the number and voracity of its parasites.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F., fr. L. parasitus, Gr. para`sitos, lit., eating beside, or at the table of, another; para` beside + sitei^n to feed, from sitos wheat, grain, food
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. parasītus—Gr. parasitospara, beside, sitos, corn.

Usage

In literature:

To avoid parasitic diseases, meat should not be eaten rare, especially pork.
"The People's Common Sense Medical Adviser in Plain English" by R. V. Pierce
His body reacted as if they were parasitic invaders, and built up antibodies against them.
"Star Surgeon" by Alan Nourse
Such creatures are called parasites.
"The Insect Folk" by Margaret Warner Morley
The resources of the duchy were racked to support these parasites.
"Sketches and Studies in Italy and Greece, Complete" by John Symonds
The future, if she likes to state it in that way, is parasitic upon the present, always has been and always will be.
"Woman and Womanhood" by C. W. Saleeby
CAUSE: Parasitic fungi invading cracked heels.
"The Veterinarian" by Chas. J. Korinek
The smuts are common and often very destructive parasitic fungi, living entirely within the tissues of the higher plants.
"Elements of Structural and Systematic Botany" by Douglas Houghton Campbell
Yet the book says that it always attacks a fish and lives as a parasite for a while.
"The Boy With the U. S. Fisheries" by Francis Rolt-Wheeler
Even a parasitic relationship.
"Planet of the Damned" by Harry Harrison
Yes; a Parasite, and a female servant.
"The Comedies of Terence" by Publius Terentius Afer, (AKA) Terence
That is intensely curious about the parasitical plant of Borneo.
"Hortus Inclusus" by John Ruskin
Hyperparasite: is a form that is parasitic upon another parasite.
"Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology" by John. B. Smith
The courtiers are parasites who flourish on the decay of intellect.
"William Shakespeare" by John Masefield
The malarial attacks caused by this parasite then occur every other day, when the parasite undergoes reproduction by division.
"The Home Medical Library, Volume I (of VI)" by Various
Women are =potential= parasites even if they never become real ones, and this is the gist of the matter we are discussing.
"Women As Sex Vendors" by R. B. Tobias
These remarks apply mainly to fungi which are parasitic on living plants.
"Fungi: Their Nature and Uses" by Mordecai Cubitt Cooke
He detested the monks, regarding them for the most part as illiterate, bigoted, persecuting, and parasitical vermin.
"Flowers of Freethought" by George W. Foote
Cysts formed around parasites Parasitic cysts.
"Special Report on Diseases of Cattle" by U.S. Department of Agriculture
Under his shelter take root and thrive all monstrous and parasitic growths.
"A Modern Symposium" by G. Lowes Dickinson
Parasitic tumors, like loathsome black ulcers, swelled abundantly on the roofs.
"The Missourian" by Eugene P. (Eugene Percy) Lyle
***

In poetry:

Parasite lichen
Lies grey on the years;
Lily buries herself
When winter appears.
"Lichen" by Mary Eliza Fullerton
In evening's calm, she walked between
The tints and shades of rich delight,
While overhead came, arching green,
Many a shrub and parasite,
To crown their Queen;
"Kadisha; Or, The First Jealousy" by Richard Doddridge Blackmore
About us are white cliffs and space.
No façades show,
Nor roof nor any spire…
All sheathed in snow…
The parasitic snow
That clings about them like a blight.
"The Foundling" by Lola Ridge
Take mountebanks, prancers,
Fops, fiddlers, and dancers,
So volatile, versatile, nimble; Pimps, parasites, spyers, Apostates, rogues, liars,
State coblers; and knights of the thimble.
"Recipe To make A French Legion of Honour" by Thomas Stott
So multitudes have been forgot--
But drones or dunces, good for naught;
Like clinging parasites or burrs
Taking from others all they dared,
Yet little they for others cared
Except as pilferers.
"The Antiquarian" by Hattie Howard
And we say good-bye to you also,
For you seem never to have discovered
That your relationship is wholly parasitic;
Yet to our feasts you bring neither
Wit, nor good spirits, nor the pleasing attitudes
Of discipleship.
"Amities" by Ezra Pound

In news:

Lake Mead swimmers' rash linked to parasites in waterfowl.
The agency that controls parasitic sea lampreys in the Great Lakes says federal budget cuts could undo years of progress.
Sea lamprey are nasty parasites to fish.
For years, the parasitic lamprey were thought to be an invasive species.
The researchers hold that humans co-evolved with a host of bacteria, viruses and parasites, and actually rely on exposure to these organisms to properly regulate our immune systems.
Multiple factors affecting colony health include pathogens, parasites, pesticides and malnutrition.
Ocean parasite named after Jamaican Bob Marley .
Professor discovers parasite and names it after the famed musician.
Arkansas State University marine biologist and Bob Marley fan Paul Sikkel named the tiny Caribbean blood-feeding parasite Gnathia marleyi.
Why does this parasitic plant remind us of romance.
UNDATED – It's sort of a strange custom – kissing or embracing someone while standing beneath the leaves of a parasitic plant.
Johnson is a professor at Stanford whose previous works—the short-story collection Emporium and the 2003 novel Parasites Like Us—have tended toward the fantastic.
Meals poisoning outcomes when you consume meals contaminated with bacteria or other pathogens such as parasites or viruses.
Illustration Union Parasite by Greg Groesch for The Washington Times more.
Sphincters tighten spasmodically at the sound of the parasitic boss's voice.
***

In science:

The second factor is due to between-host competition and confers higher fitness to lower virulence. c ¯z is the average virulence of parasites within the considered host.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
How the mean ¯z changes with the z of one parasite depends on the degree of relatedness r which is the probability that two parasites are identical by descent.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
If all parasites belong to the same strain (i.e., have the same genome), a change in the virulence of one parasite implies an identical change in all parasites, i.e., r = 1, and the optimal strategy is z = 0, or low virulence.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Let us conclude this section with a model of parasite evolution in a spatially extended host-parasite system introduced by Savill et al [182].
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Each site of a two-dimensional lattice is assigned a host density and a density of each of the 20 parasite types.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Part of the hosts disperse randomly to neighbouring lattice sites, and parasites disperse preferentially to neighbouring lattice sites with higher host density.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
The parasite types differ in the degree to which they prefer sites of high host density.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Host fitness at a site decreases with increasing total parasite density, while parasite fitness increases with host density and decreases with parasite density.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Parasites can mutate between the different types.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
We cited examples of this in the subsection on group selection (section 3.2), and in the model by Savill et al on host-parasite evolution (section 3.5), where the large-scale spatial pattern determines which genotype is advantageous.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
Clayton, D.H., and Moore, J., Eds., 1997, Host-parasite evolution, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
This EeV-UHENA signals must also be source of a parasite (1017 − 1016 eV) secondary tails of UHE neutrino ¯νe from the same neutron beta decay in flight.
Upward and Horizontal Tau Air-showers from Earth Crust Crowns: Traces of Highest Energy Neutrinos Beam Dump in Widest Volumes
Let δpar be the number of virtual double points of |C∞ | restricted to a neighbourhood of the parasitic part.
On the holomorphicity of genus two Lefschetz fibrations
The smoothing has to be partial because we want to keep deformations of the parasitic components C par ∞ ∩ (U ′ \ Bδ (|C 0 ∞ |).
On the holomorphicity of genus two Lefschetz fibrations
Replace the parasitic part by the original curve, both for the sequence Cn,ti and for the partial smoothing.
On the holomorphicity of genus two Lefschetz fibrations
***