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malaria

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n malaria an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Approximately 25,000 workers died during the building of the Panama Canal and approximately 20,000 of them contracted malaria and yellow fever
    • malaria (Med) A human disease caused by infection of red blood cells by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, giving rise to fever and chills and many other symptoms, characterized by their tendency to recur at definite and usually uniform intervals. The protozoal infection is usually transmitted from another infected individual by the bite of an Anopheles mosquito.
    • malaria Air infected with some noxious substance capable of engendering disease; esp., an unhealthy exhalation from certain soils, as marshy or wet lands, producing fevers; miasma.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Deliberately infecting people with malaria has been used to cure different viral infections. The high fever will strengthen the immune system and fight the virus. In recent times this has been considered as a treatment to HIV
    • n malaria Air contaminated with some pathogenic substance from the soil; specifically, air impregnated with the poison producing intermittent and remittent fever.
    • n malaria The disease produced by the air thus poisoned. In a strict sense the word is a generic term designating intermittent and remittent fever and other affections, such as malarial nenralgia, due to the same cause. Malarial diseases in this sense prevail in all quarters of the globe except the coldest, and the infection of soil and air occurs in both uninhabited and populous regions. The disease is contracted by presence in the locality, and not from the sick, nor do the latter seem to transplant the infection to new places to which they may go. The disease may apparently be introduced into the body through water that is drunk as well as through the air. The development of the poison is favored by heat and moisture. Malarial diseases are apt to increase after the turning up of virgin soil. The poison seems to lie low in the atmosphere, but may be blown to adjacent heights. Besides the well-marked fevers, the malarial poison produces various and often ill-marked perversions of the general health, such as neuralgia, neuritis, anemia, digestive disturbances, and albuminuria. The anatomical effects of the malarial poison are enlargement of the spleen, sometimes excessive, darkening of the skin, and the presence of a dark pigment in the blood, in amorphous masses. There is found, moreover, in malarial blood a variety of peculiar living bodies which are supposed to be the various stages in the life-history of a single organism. This has been called the Plasmodium malariæ. All these forms of malaria are, as a rule, affected favorably by quinine, and to a less degree by certain other drugs, notably arsenic.
    • n malaria Numerous investigations made in recent years have established the fact that malaria is a disease resulting from the presence within the red blood-corpuscles of a protozoan parasite, the Hæmamœba malariæ, or Plasmodium malariæ. The parasite has two cycles of existence, one in the human body, the other in the body of a mosquito of the genus Anopheles (which see, with cut). In the blood, reproduction of the parasite occurs only by fission or segmentation; but in the stomach-wall of the mosquito, which it reaches in the blood sucked by this insect from the skin of the sick, sexual reproduction occurs, the parasite giving birth to a large number of exceedingly minute forms, called sporozoids. These make their way through the tissues of the mosquito to its salivary glands, whence they are injected into the blood of the human subject whom this infected mosquito stings. On reaching maturity in the blood, the protozoan invades the red blood-corpuscles, and so completes the two cycles of its existence. The malarial paroxysm of chill, fever, and sweating occurs at the time of invasion of the blood-cells by a new brood of the parasites, either those resulting from segmentation of the protozoan within the human blood-vessels or those reproduced sexually in the body of the mosquito and thence injected into man. There are three varieties of the Hæmamœba which are concerned in the production of the three varieties of malaria, tertian, quartan, and estivoautumnal or pernicious. Symptomatically, there are four forms of malaria: the intermittent, in which the interval between the paroxysms is fever-free; the remittent, in which the fever is continuous, but is marked by exacerbations with intercurrent chill and sweating; the pernicious or congestive form, in which the blood-poisoning is profound; and the chronic form, constituting what is called the malarial cachexia. See Laverania.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: 3000 children die every day in Africa because of malaria
    • n Malaria ma-lā′ri-a the poisonous air arising from marshy districts, producing fever, &c.: miasma: the fever so caused
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
It., contr. fr. malaaria, bad air. See Malice, and Air
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
It. mal' aria—L. malus, bad, aër, air.

Usage

In literature:

What you've got is malaria or something.
"Left Guard Gilbert" by Ralph Henry Barbour
They lie and shiver with malaria.
"Margarita's Soul" by Ingraham Lovell
In the tropics troops are require to camp at least 500 yards away from all native huts or villages as a preventative measure against malaria.
"Manual of Military Training" by James A. Moss
Malaria, conveyed by mosquito, 9, 41, 43; description and treatment, 171.
"Health on the Farm" by H. F. Harris
In the vicinity of Huaura the river forms several marshes, in which malaria is generated.
"Travels in Peru, on the Coast, in the Sierra, Across the Cordilleras and the Andes, into the Primeval Forests" by J. J. von Tschudi
I returned to Queensland about the beginning of March, 1878, the malaria having left me.
"Reminiscences of Queensland" by William Henry Corfield
It is uniform, certain, deadly, as the sirocco of the desert, or as the malaria of the Pontine marshes.
"Select Temperance Tracts" by American Tract Society
Heaven send a convenient shot of malaria or a providential assegai prod to keep him there forever!
"The Sign of the Spider" by Bertram Mitford
Mr. James Cosgrove succeeded in getting the Charleston Neck marshes, wherein breeds the malaria-mosquito, drained.
"McClure's Magazine, Vol. XXXI, No. 3, July 1908." by Various
As soon as the warm weather closed in, in the summer of 1604, the malaria in the Tower began to affect Raleigh's health.
"Raleigh" by Edmund Gosse
By this time many of them were ill with malaria, then for the first time some of the wine which they had with them was used.
"The Red True Story Book" by Various
They suffered greatly from malaria and other forms of sickness, as did all the early settlers in the State.
"The Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Settlement of the Town of New Milford, Conn. June 17th, 1907" by Daniel Davenport
They are probably the sole cause of malaria and yellow fever in the human being.
"The Home Medical Library, Volume I (of VI)" by Various
You will only get typhoid and malaria, and be excruciatingly uncomfortable.
"The Rhodesian" by Gertrude Page
In the northern portions of Italy, where malaria is much less frequent than in the south.
"Delineations of the Ox Tribe" by George Vasey
Typhoid, malaria, and yellow fever, cholera and others are examples of this class.
"Insects and Diseases" by Rennie W. Doane
These marshes, I understand, are increasing; and the malaria is increasing in consequence.
"Pilgrimage from the Alps to the Tiber" by James Aitken Wylie
The danger from typhoid, dysentery, and malaria grew steadily less.
"Medicine in Virginia, 1607-1699" by Thomas P. Hughes
It is a malaria prism!
"The Humors of Falconbridge" by Jonathan F. Kelley
Malaria practically does not exist in these islands; it is a negligeable quantity.
"The Works of Robert Louis Stevenson - Swanston Edition Vol. 25 (of 25)" by Robert Louis Stevenson
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In poetry:

Once, on a time and in a place
Conducive to malaria,
There lived a member of the race
Of Rana Temporaria;
Or, more concisely still, a frog
Inhabited a certain bog.
"The Arrogant Frog And The Superior Bull" by Guy Wetmore Carryl

In news:

Optical imaging techniques for the study of malaria p71.
Malaria-like babesiosis has gained traction in Northeast, researchers say.
A tick- borne disease that causes symptoms similar to malaria is becoming more widespread in the northeastern United States, researchers say.
New Malaria Treatment Could Cure Disease With One Dose.
LONDON – An experimental malaria vaccine once thought promising is turning out to be a disappointment, with a new study showing it is only about 30 percent effective at protecting infants from the killer disease.
Researchers find malaria turning up in Alaska birds.
No malaria vaccine comes close to working 100 percent of the time.
Diseases have always come out of the woods and wildlife and found their way into human populations — the plague and malaria are two examples.
She is helping tackle malaria in Uganda.
Drug-Resistant Malaria On The Rise In Southeast Asia.
But Greece has established populations of potentially malarial mosquito species, and last year, 40 cases of locally-acquired malaria were reported, mainly in Lakonia and Attica.
The money is meant to establish the Malaria Host-Pathogen Interaction Center.
But over the past couple of years, doctors have started to see that some cases of malaria don't respond in the same way to these powerful anti- malarial medications.
LONDON — An experimental malaria vaccine once thought promising is turning out to be a disappointment, with a new study showing it is only about 30 percent effective at protecting infants from the killer disease.
Infected mosquitos spread malaria in the same way as the dreaded West Nile virus that has hit the US so hard this year.
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In science:

Malaria infected red blood cells too show notable changes in the mechanical properties of the membranes [1, 3].
Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability
In a recent study, data coming from millions of mobile phones was used to track the spread of malaria in Kenya (Wesolowski et al. 2012).
FuturICT
Wesolowski, A., Eagle, N., Tatem, A.J., Smith, D.L., Noor, A.M., Snow, R.W. and Buckee, C.O.: Quantifying the impact of human mobility on malaria.
FuturICT
Lachish, S., Knowles, S.C.L., Alves, R., Wood, M.J. and Sheldon, B.C. (2011) Infection dynamics of endemic malaria in a wild bird population: parasite species-dependent drivers of spatial and temporal variation in transmission rates. J.
A coupled hidden Markov model for disease interactions
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