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individuation

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n individuation the quality of being individual "so absorbed by the movement that she lost all sense of individuality"
    • n individuation discriminating the individual from the generic group or species
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Namco, who are the manufacturers of Pac Man the video game, has estimated that the original arcade game has been played over 10 billion times by individuals
    • n Individuation The act of individuating or state of being individuated; individualization.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The popular chocolate bar "Three Musketeers" got its name because when it was first introduced in 1932 there were three individual bars. The flavours were strawberry, chocolate, and vanilla
    • n individuation In metaphysics, the determination or contraction of a general nature to an individual mode of existence; the development of the individual from the general. The principle of individuation is the (supposed) general cause of such transformation of the general into the individual. During the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries there was much controversy among the scholastic philosophers as to what this principle may be, whether matter or form, or a peculiar and indescribable hæcceity. The difficulty has reappeared in later metaphysical thought, as in the philosophy of Schopenhauer; it is, indeed, inherent in every idealistic system which begins with thought, or the general, as the first principle.
    • n individuation Separate or individual existence or independence; that by which such individuality is developed and maintained.
    • n individuation In biology: A general term summarizing the conditions for the maintenance and perpetuation of an individual organism, when these conditions are considered collectively and in contrast with those which conduce to the generation of new beings.
    • n individuation A unifying principle or a cause of individuality.
    • n individuation The unification of two distinct types of organisms into an individual whole, such as the lichen-thallus.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Behram, an Indian thug, holds the record for most murders by a single individual. He strangled 931 people between 1790-1840 with a piece of yellow and white cloth, called a ruhmal. The most murders by a woman are 612, by Countess Erzsebet Bathory of Hungary
    • n Individuation the question as to what it is that distinguishes one organised or living being, or one thinking being, from all others
    • ***

Quotations

  • Marcel Duchamp
    Marcel Duchamp
    “The individual, man as a man, man as a brain, if you like, interests me more than what he makes, because I've noticed that most artists only repeat themselves.”
  • Arthur Schopenhauer
    Arthur%20Schopenhauer
    “No one can transcend their own individuality.”
  • Oscar Wilde
    Oscar%20Wilde
    “My great mistake, the fault for which I can't forgive myself, is that one day I ceased my obstinate pursuit of my own individuality.”
  • Junius
    Junius
    “The injustice done to an individual is sometimes of service to the public.”
  • J. Paul Getty
    J.%20Paul%20Getty
    “To succeed in business, to reach the top, an individual must know all it is possible to know about that business.”
  • Henri Delacroix
    Henri Delacroix
    “The individual's whole experience is built upon the plan of his language.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. individuation,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. individuusin, not, dividuus, divisible—dividĕre, to divide.

Usage

In literature:

It becomes us, as individuals, to rejoice.
"The History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishment of the" by Thomas Clarkson
They come singly or in small companies, and the minister converses with each individual.
"The Anti-Slavery Examiner, Part 2 of 4" by American Anti-Slavery Society
In the former case it was done by the individual; now it is done by the individual and the society.
"The Anti-Slavery Examiner, Omnibus" by American Anti-Slavery Society
They will be but the outstanding individuals in a very universal quickening.
"What is Coming?" by H. G. Wells
It varies, however, with the individual.
"Crime: Its Cause and Treatment" by Clarence Darrow
An audience must not be supposed to resemble an individual.
"Delsarte System of Oratory" by Various
He must, by some means or other, attend to them in all their distracting individuality.
"The Teacher" by Jacob Abbott
But I was not interested in the beliefs or practices of individuals.
"Our Lady Saint Mary" by J. G. H. Barry
It is of the highest importance that every individual should learn as early as possible in life what career he is best fitted to undertake.
"Analyzing Character" by Katherine M. H. Blackford and Arthur Newcomb
They were individuals and not the system under which the people lived.
"Evolution Of The Japanese, Social And Psychic" by Sidney L. Gulick
It does not refer economic problems to individual needs, to individual interest, to individual solutions.
"Readings on Fascism and National Socialism" by Various
And this hope for the individual and the race was one of the deepest elements in Browning's religion.
"The Poetry Of Robert Browning" by Stopford A. Brooke
Conflict between individual desires and social standards.
"Taboo and Genetics" by Melvin Moses Knight, Iva Lowther Peters, and Phyllis Mary Blanchard
Impenetrability, which is possessed by matter, seems to be also a property of human individualism.
"The Reform of Education" by Giovanni Gentile
Hearne saw in the cold regions north of Canada individuals of six feet four inches.
"Curiosities of Medical Experience" by J. G. (John Gideon) Millingen
From Individuality follows the individual nature of ends.
"A Review of the Systems of Ethics Founded on the Theory of Evolution" by C. M. Williams
On the other hand, the susceptibility of different individuals, and of the same individual at different times, varies considerably.
"A System of Practical Medicine by American Authors, Vol. I" by Various
Three litters contained but one individual and the largest litter contained six individuals.
"A Population Study of the Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster) in Northeastern Kansas" by Edwin P. Martin
What then is meant by individual mind, by mind as individual?
"Human Nature and Conduct" by John Dewey
Individuals die, but before death, they produce other individuals like themselves.
"Elementary Zoology, Second Edition" by Vernon L. Kellogg
***

In poetry:

They pray for individual things,
Give thanks for little happenings,
But isn't his sweep of mighty wings
Meant more for businesses of kings
Than pulling small men's petty strings?
"Noonday Grace" by John Crowe Ransom
And watch you, a broad-browed and smiling dream,
Pass, light as ever, through the lightless host,
Quietly ponder, start, and sway, and gleam—
Most individual and bewildering ghost!—
"Sonnet: Oh! Death Will Find Me, Long Before I Tire" by Rupert Brooke
Now I hold it is not decent for a scientific gent
To say another is an ass,--at least, to all intent;
Nor should the individual who happens to be meant
Reply by heaving rocks at him, to any great extent.
"The Society Upon The Stanislaus" by Francis Bret Harte
Man's abiding happiness is not in getting anything
but in giving himself up to what is greater than himself,
to ideas which are larger than his individual life,
the idea of his country,
of humanity,
of God.
"Poems On Man" by Rabindranath Tagore
The wild, free woods make no man halt or blind;
Cities rob men of eyes and hands and feet,
Patching one whole of many incomplete;
The general preys upon the individual mind,
And each alone is helpless as the wind.
"The Pioneer" by James Russell Lowell
Covet nothing, envy none, for all have things to bear
Everything is balanced, God is good and life is fair...
Who has had the worst of it and who has had the best--
None can say, for each must pass his individual test.
"Passing the Test" by Patience Strong

In news:

In the wake of the Supreme Court ruling that the Affordability Care Act meets the test of constitutionality in its most significant aspect, the individual mandate, the urgency for new, truthful leadership is obvious.
The individuals had thrown peanuts at the African-American camera operator and yelled, "This is how we feed animals.".
Supreme Court Has Upheld Individual Mandate, Handing Obama Huge Victory on Healthcare Law.
Grows almost as large as this might be feasible inside individual homes if the state's voters approve Amendment 64.
He has the rare quality of meshing with most any crowd and making each individual feel comfortable.
With 56 rooms all overlooking the magnificent Vail Valley and Sawatch Range, the Lodge offers groups and individuals an opportunity to truly retreat to the mountains and focus on business and pleasure.
An individual's opinion on capital punishment is the personal moral decision of the individual.
Though this something most of us avoid thinking about, this no pressure/free workshop will help not only facilitate an individual's wishes, but also remove much of the burden many family members face after the passing of a loved one.
The University of Alabama invites applications and nominations of highly qualified individuals for the position of Dean of the Capstone College of Nursing.
So far my favorite Olympic moment isn't Ryan Lochte's 400-meter individual medley or Dana Vollmer's world-record butterfly or Missy Franklin's impressive backstroke.
Services for HIV/AIDS Individuals and Families.
Cloud computing, a computer networking model that gives users on-demand access to shared software applications and data storage, is becoming increasingly popular among businesses and individuals.
Traditional pensions are more cost effective than 401(k)s. Individual savers need to contribute nearly twice as much to ensure similar retirement incomes.
RN needed to coordinate medical services for individuals with developmental disabilities in community integrated living arrangements (CILAs).
TMEM237 Is Mutated in Individuals with a Joubert Syndrome Re.
***

In science:

Segregation occurs if the NN of an individual is more likely to be of the same class as the individual than to be from a different class; i.e., the members of the same class tend to be clumped or clustered (see, e.g., Pielou (1961)).
Overall and Pairwise Segregation Tests Based on Nearest Neighbor Contingency Tables
Association occurs if the NN of an individual is more likely to be from another class than to be of the same class as the individual.
Overall and Pairwise Segregation Tests Based on Nearest Neighbor Contingency Tables
The rather long time scale obtained for τ0 is likely to be related to the individual slowing down of the superspin flip, due to the individual anisotropy barriers of the nanoparticles.
Growth of a dynamical correlation length in an aging superspin glass
The classical approach to evolutionary game dynamics assumes well-mixed populations, where every individual is equally likely to interact with every other individual .
Evolutionary game dynamics in phenotype space
We are interested in the probability y that two randomly chosen individuals have the same strategy. continuous time limit, strategy mutations arrive at rate µ on the ancestral lines of the two individuals.
Evolutionary game dynamics in phenotype space
The total payoff of an individual is the sum of all payoffs that individual receives.
Evolutionary game dynamics in phenotype space
In other words while in the probabilities of (47) we pick two individuals with replacement, in the quantities of (3) two individuals were picked without replacement.
Evolutionary game dynamics in phenotype space
We know, however, that out of two individuals we pick the same individual twice with probability 1/N, and pick two different individuals otherwise.
Evolutionary game dynamics in phenotype space
If the parent dies during this update step (which happens with probability 1/N ) one individual is the daughter with probability 2/N (and the other individual cannot be the parent).
Evolutionary game dynamics in phenotype space
How significant is this result? I will consider assigning an individual p-value to (8.1), not taking into account multiple inference for a catalogue of possible gene-sets (which we could correct for later using Fdr methods, for instance, to combine the individual p-values).
Microarrays, Empirical Bayes and the Two-Groups Model
Let yyy (cid:63) be the N (T − 3) × 1 vector of all y (cid:63) i,t across individuals i and time t, and let XXX be the N (T − 3) × 6 matrix whose rows are all Xi,t across individuals i and time t.
Changes in the Distribution of Income Volatility
Given the homogeneous parameters (φφφ, γ 2 ) and the collection of volatility parameters (σ 2σ 2σ 2 ), each individual’s income process is independent, so run the Kalman filter and sampling procedure for the realized shocks (ωωω i, εεεi ) for each individual i separately.
Changes in the Distribution of Income Volatility
Segregation occurs if the NN of an individual is more likely to be of the same class as the individual; i.e., the members of the same class tend to be clumped or clustered (see, e.g., Pielou (1961)).
New Tests of Spatial Segregation Based on Nearest Neighbor Contingency Tables
For Dixon’s tests, the probability of an individual from class j serving as a NN of an individual from class i depends only on the class sizes (i.e., row sums), but not the total number of times class j serves as NNs (i.e., column sums).
New Tests of Spatial Segregation Based on Nearest Neighbor Contingency Tables
Segregation occurs if the NN of an individual is more likely to be of the same class as the individual than to be of another class (see, e.g., Pielou (1961)).
Class-Specific Tests of Spatial Segregation Based on Nearest Neighbor Contingency Tables
***