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fermentation

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n fermentation a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances; especially, the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into alcohol
    • n fermentation a state of agitation or turbulent change or development "the political ferment produced new leadership","social unrest"
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Wasps that feed on ferment occasionally get drunk and pass out
    • Fermentation A state of agitation or excitement, as of the intellect or the feelings. "It puts the soul to fermentation and activity.""A univesal fermentation of human thought and faith."
    • Fermentation (Physiol. Chem) The process of undergoing an effervescent change, as by the action of yeast;
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Dry wine is a wine that has been completely fermented, meaning that only 0.1% of the sugar remains.
    • n fermentation A gentle boiling or ebullition.
    • n fermentation A decomposition produced in an organic substance by the physiological action of a living organism or by certain unorganized agents. See ferment. Fungi (and especially species of Saccharomyces) and bacteria are the agents of fermentative processes or changes. Fermentation naturally ceases when the nutritive elements of the fermented substance are exhausted, or a sufficient proportion of a substance (as alcohol) deleterious to the ferment-organism is produced. It may be checked or altogether prevented by anything which prevents the growth of the organism, as by exclusion of the germs or spores, by subjection to a temperature too high or too low, by the presence of too large a proportion of sugar or of a substance (called an antiseptic) which acts as a poison to the organism. There are various kinds of fermentation, each of which is caused by special organisms. Alcoholic fermentation in saccharine solutions, or fermentation in its most restricted sense, may be produced by any of several organisms, including several species of Saccharomyces, Mucor, Penicillium, and Aspergillus. and to a slight extent by certain other fungi; but the most important agent is Saccharomyces cerevisice, which produces the fermentation of beer. In fermenting wine, several species of Saccharomyces are found. S. Mycoderma forms a mold-like growth on the surface, the so-called flowersof wine. Acetous fermentation takes place in liquids which have undergone alcoholic fermentation, and is caused by Micrococcus (Mycoderma) aceti, the vinegar-plant. The alcohol is oxidized, and acetic acid or vinegar is the result. This micrococcus takes two forms: the immersed or anaërobiotic form exists as a mucilaginous mass called the mother of vinegar; the other is the surface or aërobiotic form, the flowers of vinegar. According to Pasteur, the latter only is active in producing fermentation. Lactie fermentation, or souring of milk, is induced by certain bacteria which decompose the sugar of milk and produce lactic acid. Viscous fermentation is of two kinds: the one is caused by certain bacteria which convert the fermenting substance into a slimy mass and produce mannite; the other is caused by Leuconostoc mesenterioides, which brings about the slimy condition, but does not produce mannite. The latter occurs in saccharine solutions, and is a source of serious loss to sugar-manufacturers on the European continent. The agent in butyric fermentation is Bacillus amylobacter, and butyric acid is the result. Certain fermentative changes are produced in wood by various fungi. Putrefactive fermentation, or putrefaction, occurs in animal substances and plant products containing a large proportion of nitrogenous matter. The organism which is active in the putrefaction of beef is Bacterium termo. The ammoniacal fermentation of urine is caused by Micrococcus ureæ. See putrefaction, bacterium, and germ theory, under germ.
    • n fermentation Figuratively, the state of being in high activity or commotion; agitation; excitement, as of the intellect or feelings, a society, etc.
    • n fermentation See the adjectives.
    • n fermentation Synonyms See ebullition.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Ever wonder how Swiss cheese is made? As the cheese ferments, a bacterial action generates gas. As the gas is liberated, it bubbles through the cheese, leaving all those holes.
    • n Fermentation the act or process of fermenting: the change which takes place in liquids exposed to air: the kind of spontaneous decomposition which produces alcohol: restless action of the mind or feelings
    • ***

Quotations

  • Matthew Arnold
    Matthew%20Arnold
    “Unquiet souls. In the dark fermentation of earth, in the never idle workshop of nature, in the eternal movement, yea shall find yourselves again.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. fermentation,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. fermentum, for fervimentumfervēre, to boil.

Usage

In literature:

At once south-western Asia was in a ferment.
"Ancient Egypt" by George Rawlinson
Broome had not seen much of the boy, intimately, since the New Year; and he did not need spectacles to discern some inner ferment at work.
"Far to Seek" by Maud Diver
The accustomed drunkard is disordered, if he has not his usual potation of fermented liquor.
"Zoonomia, Vol. I" by Erasmus Darwin
About 1870, he became a careful experimenter with the phenomena of fermentation.
"Notable Events of the Nineteenth Century" by Various
For weeks now his life had been in ferment, his moods as freakish as the wind.
"Kenny" by Leona Dalrymple
The material should be thoroughly mixed and allowed to ferment for a few days.
"The Culture of Vegetables and Flowers From Seeds and Roots, 16th Edition" by Sutton and Sons
It was a moment of high ferment.
"Curiosities of Literature, Vol. II (of 3)" by Isaac Disraeli
The Paris revolution of 1830 set all youthful Europe in a ferment.
"Richard Wagner" by John F. Runciman
Stop it very close till it ferment, then give such vent as is necessary, and keep it warm for about three days, it will work and ferment.
"The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby Knight Opened" by Kenelm Digby
Ferment on this Occasion.
"A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Volume 16" by Robert Kerr
We know that the saliva contains a certain material called a ferment, which is the active agent in bringing about the change.
"The Story of the Living Machine" by H. W. Conn
On my return from Holland, I found Paris as I had left it, still in high fermentation.
"Memoir, Correspondence, And Miscellanies, From The Papers Of Thomas Jefferson" by Thomas Jefferson
The greatest intellects of the day are all in a state of inner ferment.
"Atlantis" by Gerhart Hauptmann
Brandy is distilled from fermented fruit juice, whiskey and gin from beer or fermented grains, rum from fermented molasses.
"First Book in Physiology and Hygiene" by J.H. Kellogg
The fermenting juice appears to be full of bubbles which rise to the surface.
"A Civic Biology" by George William Hunter
The honey in the maguey had begun to ferment.
"Mexico" by Susan Hale
So to the ancients the fermentation in the process of leavening was considered corruption.
"The Syrian Christ" by Abraham Mitrie Rihbany
There are two general classes of ferments: (1) living organisms, or organized ferments; (2) chemical, or unorganized ferments.
"The Book of Cheese" by Charles Thom and Walter Warner Fisk
The worst of it is that it is made by fermentation.
"A Guide to Health" by Mahatma Gandhi
It was thus that he passed from the study of crystals to the study of ferments.
"An Introduction to the History of Science" by Walter Libby
***

In poetry:

It's not so much that she steps out
of the small body enclosing her,
but that all she carries in herself
frolics and ferments.
"Child In Red" by Rainer Maria Rilke
Breezy dapplings to and fro,
What a ferment o'er the meadow!
O'er the billowy corn they go,
Light and shadow, light and shadow.
"Song The Seventh" by Thomas Aird
Phyllis, I've a keg of fine fermented grape juice,
Alban wine that's been nine years in the cellar.
Ivy chaplets? Sure. Also, in the garden,
Plenty of parsley.
"R.S.V.P." by Franklin Pierce Adams
Until the full fermented risen spirit
Of ripened years will shoot up, like the smell
Of humid centifolia. It will have to
Reveal itself, it cannot help but tell.
"From early dawn the thirtieth of April..." by Boris Pasternak
So he could struggle, inwardly tormented
By beasts and demons, as he had for years,
And somehow God, an essence far from clear,
Could be distilled from what the saint fermented.
"The Temptation Of St. Anthony" by Rainer Maria Rilke
VI. And how the choir compleat rejoices,
With trembling strings and melting voices,
The tuneful ferment rises high,
And works with mingled melody:
Quick divisions run their rounds,
A thousand trills and quivering sounds
"An Ode For St. Cecilia's Day" by Joseph Addison

In news:

The book has given me the confidence to play with the process—and the understanding to ferment fruits and vegetables from my garden.
Hannah Crum, the Kombucha Mamma, shows off her fermented wares at the 2011 Fermentation Festival.
Cathy, who has been fermenting vegetables for about eight years, has fermented more than 200 gallons of pickles and sauerkraut as an alternative to canning.
In these culture vessels volumes from 10 mL–1.0 L are necessary to run fermentations .
Suddenly, sauerkraut (aka fermented cabbage) is sexy, bread leavened with commercial yeast as opposed to naturally occurring yeast is verboten, and yogurt is on A-list menus.
Must you eat fruit on an empty stomach, so it won't mix with other foods and cause fermentation and rot.
Fermenting Foods for fermenting include sauerkraut photographed on Thursday, May 28, 2009.
Fermenting Foods for fermenting include peach chutney, radish kimchee, sauerkraut and green beans photographed on Thursday, May 28, 2009.
Katz began the workshop by declaring that everyone in the room had probably eaten some kind of fermented food that day.
In other cultures, foods have been fermented for years.
Some consume fermented dairy products such as kefir or yogurt while others, such as Scandinavians, preserve fish with fermentation .
Boulder Distillery fermenting new scene.
A batch of kefir takes only 16 to 18 hours to produce, but the blend of bacterial cultures used to ferment the milk affects the product's taste and is a closely guarded secret.
Around the corner from Hermès and Chanel, Sake Shop Fukumitsuya contains an informal bar that showcases fermented rice from the Fukumitsuya brewery, which was founded in 1625.
Sake is a fermented beverage made of rice, water, yeast, and koji, an enzyme.
***

In science:

Bryant, “The characterization of mixing in fermenters,” Adv.
Measures of mixing quality in open flows with chaotic advection
Second, The use of timestamped epistemic operators and the introduction of the Lamport relation into the formal language implies greater expressivity that we hope will ferment new insights into the study of causation in distributed systems.
Causality, Knowledge and Coordination in Distributed Systems
There is a ferment of ideas in understanding QCD at high temperatures and at high density; it seems realistic to hope that we will produce usable predictions for the structure of neutron stars and for behavior in extreme astrophysical environments.
Future Summary
For instance, ruminants (for example the cow) and colobine monkeys (for example the langur) independently developed a fermentative foregut where cellulose is digested with the help of bacteria.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
We provide this here because, first, Killip–Nenciu proved this result to provide a five-diagonal model for CUE (see below), and because the result was proven as part of the ferment stirred up by the CMV discovery.
CMV matrices: Five years after
Particle physics should be entering a new era of intellectual ferment and revolutionary advance.
ILC Reference Design Report Volume 1 - Executive Summary
Jones, K.O. (2006). Comparison of genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization for fermentation feed profile determination, International Conference on Computer Systems and Tecnologies, pp.
Fuzzy Inference Systems Optimization
The result was pleasing, at least to me, for it demonstrated (once again) the enormous intellectual ferment that particle physics can generate.
Summary and Outlook
***