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excavate

Definitions

  • Excavated foundation of a late 17th-century prototype of the Baltimore and Philadelphia row houses. Six families could have lived here
    Excavated foundation of a late 17th-century prototype of the Baltimore and Philadelphia row houses. Six families could have lived here
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v excavate remove the inner part or the core of "the mining company wants to excavate the hillside"
    • v excavate form by hollowing "Carnegie had a lake excavated for Princeton University's rowing team","excavate a cavity"
    • v excavate find by digging in the ground "I dug up an old box in the garden"
    • v excavate recover through digging "Schliemann excavated Troy","excavate gold"
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Careful excavation was required to identify the fill of long-obliterated ditches once draining fields and marking property boundaries Careful excavation was required to identify the fill of long-obliterated ditches once draining fields and marking...
Kinds of roofing materials excavated include flat tiles (shown here), curved pantiles, slate, and shingles Kinds of roofing materials excavated include flat tiles (shown here), curved pantiles, slate, and shingles
A few kitchen utensils and accessories excavated at Jamestown: a ladle, brass pan, knife blades, fork, kettle fragments, spout, colander fragments, and pot hooks A few kitchen utensils and accessories excavated at Jamestown: a ladle, brass pan, knife blades, fork, kettle...
A family enjoying a meal, about 1650. Many of the eating and drinking vessels portrayed, together with much of the tableware, are types which have been excavated. (Conjectural sketch by Sidney E. King.) A family enjoying a meal, about 1650. Many of the eating and drinking vessels portrayed, together with much of the...
Late 17th-century Italian maiolica bowls excavated at Jamestown Late 17th-century Italian maiolica bowls excavated at Jamestown
Four brick kilns have been excavated. The one shown had five firing chambers. Roofing tiles were also made in the Jamestown brick kilns Four brick kilns have been excavated. The one shown had five firing chambers. Roofing tiles were also made in the...
A 17th-century lime kiln excavated at Jamestown. In it oyster shells from the James River were burned for making lime. The iron hoops which supported the arched top of the kiln buckled from the intense heat A 17th-century lime kiln excavated at Jamestown. In it oyster shells from the James River were burned for making...
Hilt and portion of blade of a swept-hilt rapier excavated at Jamestown of the 1600-1610 period Hilt and portion of blade of a swept-hilt rapier excavated at Jamestown of the 1600-1610 period

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The saluki is the oldest known breed of domesticated dog. Carvings of animals resembling the saluki have been found in excavations of the Sumerian Empire. They are believed to have originated from between 6,000 and 7,000 B.C.
    • Excavate (Engin) To dig out and remove, as earth. "The material excavated was usually sand."
    • Excavate To form by hollowing; to shape, as a cavity, or anything that is hollow; as, to excavate a canoe, a cellar, a channel.
    • Excavate To hollow out; to form cavity or hole in; to make hollow by cutting, scooping, or digging; as, to excavate a ball; to excavate the earth.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: When Mount Vesuvius erupted in in the year 79, over 2,000 citizens of Pompeii ran into their cellars to wait until everything had ended. Excavators found them still there 1,800 years later.
    • excavate To hollow out, or make a hollow or cavity in, by digging or scooping out the inner part, or by removing extraneous matter: as, to excavate a tumulus or a buried city for the purpose of exploring it; to excavate a cocoanut.
    • excavate To form by scooping or hollowing out; make by digging out material, as from the earth: as, to excavate a tunnel or a cellar.
    • excavate In zoology: Formed as if by excavation; hollowed, but having the inner surface irregularly rounded.
    • excavate Widely and irregularly notched: said of a margin or mark.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: High-wire acts have been enjoyed since the time of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Antique medals have been excavated from Greek islands depicting men ascending inclined cords and walking across ropes stretched between cliffs. The Greeks called these high-wire performers neurobates or oribates. In the Roman city of Herculaneum there is a fresco representing an aerialist high on a rope, dancing and playing a flute. Sometimes Roman tightrope walkers stretched cables between the tops of two neighboring hills and performed comic dances and pantomimes while crossing.
    • v.t Excavate eks′ka-vāt to hollow or scoop out: to dig out
    • ***

Quotations

  • James Baldwin
    James%20Baldwin
    “The responsibility of a writer is to excavate the experience of the people who produced him.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. excavatus, p. p. of excavare, to excavate; ex, out + cavare, to make hollow, cavus, hollow. See Cave
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. excavāreex, out, cavus, hollow.

Usage

In literature:

Further excavations revealed the record hall of Amenophis IV., long buried under the ruins of his short-lived city.
"Oriental Women" by Edward Bagby Pollard
The miners also carried on their operations, and galleries were excavated almost to the centre of the place.
"History of the Reign of Philip the Second, King of Spain." by William H. Prescott
In cross dredging we may suppose the vessel to be moored at one side of the channel to be excavated.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 7" by Various
Replacing the stones in the bag they continued their excavation now with a tremble of the hands.
"A Secret of the Lebombo" by Bertram Mitford
Excavation of valleys, 315.
"The Origin of the World According to Revelation and Science" by John William Dawson
Excavations were made here in 1890-1892 by Flinders Petrie and Bliss.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 2" by Various
The excavations conducted during 1908 and the two following years are deeply interesting.
"The Towns of Roman Britain" by James Oliver Bevan
In this excavation is placed some clean straw and sandal wood with myrrh and sweet perfumes.
"My Trip Around the World" by Eleonora Hunt
The latter are hewn perpendicularly in the rock, while the Roman tombs are chambers excavated horizontally.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 3" by Various
Excavated in twenty years, 55 feet deep, and 180 feet broad.
"Principles of Geology" by Charles Lyell
In 1890 the floor of the gallery in which it stands was excavated, and another floor was found to be 6 ft. below its supposed level.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 5" by Various
Pottery of almost similar technique was found in Crete in 1905 during the American excavations at Vasiliki near Hierapetra.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 6" by Various
Then he shook a handful of grass and leaves into the bottom of the excavation.
"The Firebrand" by S. R. Crockett
It was a piece of flat iron, and the only instrument procurable for excavating purposes.
"The Story of a Strange Career" by Anonymous
These rooms were partly excavated by Hormuzd Rassam in 1879-1880.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 3" by Various
He was reading a notice on the great gateway, directing strangers to some excavations lately made.
"The Lightning Conductor" by C. N. Williamson
Of these excavations no trace was to be seen when those of 1892 were begun.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 5" by Various
Part of his temple has been excavated recently.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 7" by Various
Their dwellings are excavated in the hill-sides, and frequently cut in the solid rock.
"The Progress of Ethnology" by John Russell Bartlett
This work involved the grading of New Era Hill, just south of New Era, and some heavy rock excavation from New Era north.
"Third Biennial Report of the Oregon State Highway Commission" by S. Benson, W. L. Thompson, R. A. Booth, Herbert Nunn
***

In poetry:

Safe in his excavated gallery
The burrowing mole groped on from year to year;
No harmless hedgehog curled because of me
His prickly back for fear.
"From House To House" by Christina Georgina Rossetti
shaking over the excavations, as it faces Colonel Shaw
and his bell-cheeked Negro infantry
on St. Gaudens' shaking Civil War relief,
propped by a plank splint against the garage's earthquake.
"For the Union Dead" by Robert Lowell
The chimes called midnight, just at interlune,
And the daytime talk on the Roman investigations
Was checked by silence, save for the husky tune
The bubbling waters played near the excavations.
"Aquae Sulis" by Thomas Hardy
Below me, like an opened grave,
The Forum's excavations lie,
Where column, arch and architrave
In solemn grandeur greet the eye,
Still guarding 'neath Italia's sky
The glory that can never die.
"On The Palentine" by John Lawson Stoddard

In news:

Upgraded with the latest in hydraulic pumps, control valves, and cylinders, mid-size Bobcat excavators offer hydraulic advantages over previous models and competitive brands.
Therefore, each conveyor station is supported by legs that each use three hydraulic cylinders to periodically walk closer to the excavation site.
The excavation will continue today in search of more clues as to the nature of this sacred ceremonial Incan practice.
We are finding many animal bones in the sink ( latrine ) from Block 8 being excavated this year.
LEA's staggered Multi-Ripper teeth function like trencher teeth, applying the excavator's full breakout force on each tooth tip sequentially.
The T1655 terrain leveler surface excavation machine weights 200 tons and stands 22 feet high.
ANCHORAGE, Alaska – A team from the University of Alaska Museum of the North has succeeded in excavating the fossil of a rare, ancient marine reptile from rock that's usually covered by the tide.
Nearby, the foundation of a Viking chieftain's house, almost 300 feet long, has been excavated.
Excavator falls into building basement.
No one was injured Wednesday when the excavator being used to demolish the former J.C. Penney building in downtown Ishpeming fell through the floor into the building's basement.
The plaza in front of my old carmen was being excavated for an underground garage.
Lighthouse archaeologists excavate site dating from 18th century.
This glacial rock, on Bret and Elizabeth Kennon's property in Miami, was found when excavators were digging a site for the house.
Newsflash April 22, 1997: Royal Clues Excavated.
This year's excavation in the shadow of the Great Pyramid is now complete, and has turned up tantalizing new clues about the workers who built these great monuments, and the royal families for whom they were built.
***

In science:

The subpanel noted that some experiments could be done in shallow sites like Soudan and WIPP, but that only Homestake and the proposed San Jacinto excavation would be deep enough to provide the very low background required for a variety of experiments.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
The Gran Sasso excavation produced three large detector halls, each approximately 20 m wide by 100 m long by 20 m in height.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
The Kamioka and original SNO excavations are quite different.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
Second, the excavation was specialized, not general purpose, designed to optimize a specific experiment.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
As these excavations will occur while other experiments are operating, the ventilation system (and other barriers) must be adequate to keep dust out of occupied halls.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
The capacity to excavate a megadetector at depth: If a megadetector is to serve multiple purposes – e.g., proton decay, long-baseline neutrino physics, and a supernova neutrino observatory – it must be located at a reasonable depth and be operable for a period ∼ 50 years.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
As such an experiment is crucial part of the NUSEL program, it must be known that rock in the vicinity of the laboratory is sufficiently competent to permit such an excavation.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
The only accepted technique for doing this is coring of the site, followed by laboratory testing of the core samples. A geotechnical site history, particularly one in which other large cavities have been excavated and monitored for stability, is also helpful.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
The “rural mailbox” excavation will produce about 2.5 megatons of rock, which is considered solid waste when brought to the surface.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
One exceptional case is Baksan, a “greenfield” project in which a tunnel was excavated to considerable depth (4700 mwe) for the purpose of creating a scientific laboratory.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
No major construction is required underground to convert Homestake into an unmatched scientific laboratory, apart from hall excavation.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
While the Yates compressors will be used during initial construction of NUSEL, we intend to install new compressors on both of the main experimental levels, and may use skid-mounted compressors for later underground excavation.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
This group supports underground excavation and construction activities by transporting supplies, materials, waste rock, and personnel.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
Proposed megadetectors include water Cerenkov detectors like UNO and Hyper-Kamiokande, variations where an array of Super-Kamiokande-like modules is excavated, and new-technology detectors like SuperIcarus.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
In 1985, as VCR mining was being developed at Homestake, HMC arranged to have the Bureau of Mines evaluate a test VCR excavation at 7100 ft.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
***