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envelope

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n envelope any wrapper or covering
    • n envelope a flat (usually rectangular) container for a letter, thin package, etc.
    • n envelope the bag containing the gas in a balloon
    • n envelope the maximum operating capability of a system (especially an aircraft) "test pilots try to push the envelope"
    • n envelope a natural covering (as by a fluid) "the spacecraft detected an envelope of gas around the comet"
    • n envelope a curve that is tangent to each of a family of curves
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: There was a post office on the Russian space station Mir. Visiting cosmonauts would use unique postal "markers" to stamp envelopes and other items as having flown aboard the Mir space station
    • Envelope (Geom) A curve or surface which is tangent to each member of a system of curves or surfaces, the form and position of the members of the system being allowed to vary according to some continuous law. Thus, any curve is the envelope of its tangents.
    • Envelope A set of limits for the performance capabilities of some type of machine, originally used to refer to aircraft; -- it is often described graphically as a two-dimensional graph of a function showing the maximum of one performance variable as a function of another. Now it is also used metaphorically to refer to capabilities of any system in general, including human organizations, esp. in the phrase push the envelope. It is used to refer to the maximum performance available at the current state of the technology, and therefore refers to a class of machines in general, not a specific machine.
    • Envelope (Fort) A work of earth, in the form of a single parapet or of a small rampart. It is sometimes raised in the ditch and sometimes beyond it.
    • Envelope That which envelops, wraps up, encases, or surrounds; a wrapper; an inclosing cover; esp., the cover or wrapper of a document, as of a letter.
    • Envelope (Astron) The nebulous covering of the head or nucleus of a comet; -- called also coma.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Francis Scott Key wrote the words to "The Star-Spangled Banner" on the back on an envelope. The music is from an old English drinking song called "To Anacreon in Heaven."
    • n Envelope (en′vel-ōp, sometimes, but quite unneces that which envelops, wraps, or covers, esp. the cover of a letter
    • ***

Quotations

  • Charles Baudelaire
    Charles%20Baudelaire
    “The life of our city is rich in poetic and marvelous subjects. We are enveloped and steeped as though in an atmosphere of the marvelous; but we do not notice it.”
  • Joseph French Johnson
    Joseph French Johnson
    “The man who works for the gold in the job rather than for the money in the pay envelope, is the fellow who gets on.”
  • John Maynard Keynes
    John%20Maynard%20Keynes
    “The social object of skilled investment should be to defeat the dark forces of time and ignorance which envelope our future.”
  • Henry David Thoreau
    Henry%20David%20Thoreau
    “The purity men love is like the mists which envelope the earth, and not like the azure ether beyond.”
  • Clifton Fadiman
    Clifton Fadiman
    “For most men life is a search for the proper manila envelope in which to get themselves filed.”

Idioms

Push the envelope - This means to go to the limits, to do something to the maximum possible.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. enveloppe,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. enveloper; origin obscure. Skeat refers it to the assumed Teut. root of M. E. wlappen, Eng. lap.

Usage

In literature:

And then I discovered she was sending out little envelopes and getting little envelopes in return.
"The Blue Wall" by Richard Washburn Child
Save for a tiny square blue envelope at the bottom, the box was empty!
"The Green Rust" by Edgar Wallace
About 11.30 two men came in, one carrying a wooden box filled with little envelopes.
"Working With the Working Woman" by Cornelia Stratton Parker
It enveloped the world in mystery, and threw a glamour over the dying day.
"Mr. Opp" by Alice Hegan Rice
Patricia suggested that he would write on the envelope that he wished it to be buried with him.
"A Patriotic Schoolgirl" by Angela Brazil
Go to the trunk and search till you find a paper folded in an envelope, and inscribed with your name.
"The Young Bank Messenger" by Horatio Alger
You will notice that the bottom fold of the envelope is used for the top of the animal.
"Little Folks' Handy Book" by Lina Beard
Pete went out to buy a sheet of notepaper and an envelope, a pen, and a postage stamp.
"The Manxman A Novel - 1895" by Hall Caine
The envelope was white and he heaved a sigh of relief.
"Little Lost Sister" by Virginia Brooks
Also, the tree must have a hollow place in which the envelope could be concealed.
"The Girl and The Bill" by Bannister Merwin
She was to enclose them in a stout envelope and send them to him.
"In Connection with the De Willoughby Claim" by Frances Hodgson Burnett
Thoughtlessly he stuffed the envelope into his pocket, not reckoning what it might contain.
"Peter the Brazen" by George F. Worts
Amongst the clothes, lying by itself, was a thick envelope.
"The Time of Roses" by L. T. Meade
His blood seemed very strong, enveloping her.
"The Rainbow" by D. H. (David Herbert) Lawrence
And at each place I paid the dues from its particular envelope.
"Ghetto Comedies" by Israel Zangwill
But the other envelope bore an address which Vagualame gazed at reflectively.
"A Nest of Spies" by Pierre Souvestre
It was the corner of a torn envelope.
"The Island Mystery" by George A. Birmingham
As he did so, he noticed an envelope addressed to him lying on the table.
"John Dene of Toronto" by Herbert Jenkins
At last, with a strange sense of apprehension, she tore the envelope open.
"The Gambler" by Katherine Cecil Thurston
Edward glanced at the clock, and, with a hurried good-bye, flew down the garden path, the open envelope still in his hand.
"The Princess Galva" by David Whitelaw
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In poetry:

Alone in my chamber, forsaken, unsought,
My spirit's enveloped in shadows of night,
Is there no one to give me a smile or a thought?
Is there none to restore to me faded delight?
"Alone" by Lennox Amott
Roll, roll thy white waves, and enveloped in foam,
Pour thy tides round the echoing shore;
Thou guard of Old England—my country, my home!
And my soul shall rejoice in the roar!
"To The British Channel" by Robert Bloomfield
Her patient heart was full of hope,
For health she gave God thanks,
Till one day in an envelope
I sealed a thousand francs,
And 'neath her door for her to see
I slipped it secretly.
"Charity" by Robert W Service
This will last till the spirit is freed from the clod,
Which envelopes the essence divine;
It may add to the treasures reserv'd for the just,
Which with lustre celestial shall shine.
"The Reflections Of A Serious Moment" by Elizabeth Bath
Look deeper still. Dost underline
Most words in writing letters?
Or "Local" write on envelopes?
Say, ere I bind my fetters.
Let no false pity spare the blow, but in true mercy tell me so.
"Myrtilla's Third Degree" by Franklin Pierce Adams
Waiting, ever waiting for thy soothing call,
And the welcome darkness that envelops all,
If no more to waken, then no more to weep,
Sleep, so dear to me,
Sleep, come near to me,
Sleep, sweet sleep!
"Wakefulness" by John Lawson Stoddard

In news:

As soon as the new pledges ripped open their bid envelopes and found out where they'd spend their next four years, the squealing started, easily competing with the loudest cheers you hear during the fall at Bryant-Denny.
Envelopes often as collectible as stamps.
Maryville Middle teachers, students push the envelope for Haiti.
Multiple LFOs and envelopes per voice.
A great day in the Emig household -- a pair of U2 tickets showed up in a FedEx envelope.
Price Waterhouse is famous for never revealing the names of the Oscar winners until the envelopes are opened on the Academy Awards broadcast.
Braxton's musical constructs challenge, envelop.
A federal grand jury in Portland on Friday indicted a sometime Vancouver resident for allegedly mailing about 100 envelopes containing a white powder and threatening letters to House Speaker John Boehner and other American leaders.
"You can do it before service, during service, after service, or sometime during the week instead of coming in and handing an individual offering envelope or putting out a check," King said.
Contributed photo Young members of the Shiloh Baptist Church youth group stuff envelopes for a local nonprofit during Teens Make a Difference Day.
Be sure to mark your envelope Money Matters.
It appears in newspapers and magazines and on bottles, envelopes, cardboard cartons, and other containers.
Wells Fargo hit with envelopes containing white powder, sparking NYPD investigation.
State patrol officers stopped anyone from entering or leaving the Statehouse on Tuesday evening after Abdul-Samad opened an envelope at his desk and powder spilled out.
Police have a suspect in lockup for allegedly sending envelopes with " white powder " in them to members of Congress.
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In science:

We show the behaviour of envelope in the logscale plot.
Random-Mass Dirac Fermions in an Imaginary Vector Potential (I): Delocalization Transition and Localization Length
Second, this total energy is quite sensitive to the explosion energy and envelope mass, the degree of central concentration of the star’s atmosphere, and any mild asymmetry that may have developed in the explosion.
Trans-Relativistic Supernovae, Circumstellar Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernova 1998bw
De Dominicis et al., J. de Phys. I, 6, 1031 (1996) The usual definition is the convex envelope Γ[u] = minJ (J u − W [J ]). in case of multiple solutions all saddle points should be summed over Γ[u] = − ln Pπ e−Γπ [u] . P.
Functional renormalization group at large N for random manifolds
For example, every simple factor ring A of the enveloping algebra U (L) of a finite dimensional Lie algebra L is Auslander-Gorenstein and Cohen-Macaulay.
Dualizing Complexes and Tilting Complexes over Simple Rings
In the standard model, the energy is transferred from the hot compact remnant to the envelope by the neutrino flux.
Why NS and BH mass distribition is bimodal?
The rotational energy loss by the neutron star is convected up through the envelope by the turbulent motions and lost through its outer boundary.
On the duration of the subsonic propeller state of neutron stars in wind-fed mass-exchange close binary systems
Until the energy input to the envelope dominates the energy losses the temperature of the envelope plasma is of the order of the freefall temperature, T ≃ Tff and, correspondingly, the sound speed is of the order of the free-fall velocity, Vs ≃ Vff .
On the duration of the subsonic propeller state of neutron stars in wind-fed mass-exchange close binary systems
Within the considered picture the envelope is quasi-static, i.e. the mass flux through the envelope is almost zero.
On the duration of the subsonic propeller state of neutron stars in wind-fed mass-exchange close binary systems
The interaction between the fast rotating magnetosphere and the base of the envelope leads to the turbulization of the envelope plasma.
On the duration of the subsonic propeller state of neutron stars in wind-fed mass-exchange close binary systems
To model the infrared maps of the envelope, we follow a standard prescription where the dust grains are heated by light from the central star and then re-radiate in the infrared (Sopka et al. 1984).
The Very Slow Wind From the Pulsating Semiregular Red Giant L2 Pup
However, the circumstellar envelope around L2 Pup is unusual.
The Very Slow Wind From the Pulsating Semiregular Red Giant L2 Pup
With the parameters given above, then for the envelope around L2 Pup, α = 0.6 and radiation pressure does not dominate the circumstellar dynamics.
The Very Slow Wind From the Pulsating Semiregular Red Giant L2 Pup
The quantum algebra Uq (g) associated to a semisimple Lie algebra g is the q -analogue introduced by Drinfeld and Jimbo of its universal enveloping algebra U (g).
An algorithm for computing the global basis of an irreducible $U_{q}(sp_{2n})$-module
Kashiwara, Crystal lizing the q -analogue of universal enveloping algebra, Commun.
An algorithm for computing the global basis of an irreducible $U_{q}(sp_{2n})$-module
Lusztig, Quivers, perverse sheaves, and quantized enveloping algebras, J.
An algorithm for computing the global basis of an irreducible $U_{q}(sp_{2n})$-module
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