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dualism

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n dualism the doctrine that reality consists of two basic opposing elements, often taken to be mind and matter (or mind and body), or good and evil
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Dualism (Philos) State of being dual or twofold; a twofold division; any system which is founded on a double principle, or a twofold distinction "An inevitable dualism bisects nature, so that each thing is a half, and suggests another thing to make it whole."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n dualism Division into two; a twofold division; duality.
    • n dualism In philosophy, in general, that way of thinking which seeks to explain all sorts of phenomena by the assumption of two radically independent and absolute elements, without any continuous gradation between them: opposed to monism. In particular, the term is applied — To the doctrine that spirit and matter exist as distinct substances, thus being opposed both to idealism and to materialism.
    • n dualism To the doctrine of a double absolute, especially a principle of good and a principle of evil, or a male and a female principle.
    • n dualism In theol.: The doctrine that there are two independent divine beings or eternal principles, one good and the other evil: characteristic especially of Parsism and various Gnostic systems.
    • n dualism The heretical doctrine, attributed to Nestorius by his opponents, of the twofold personality of Christ, the divine logos dwelling as a separate and distinct person in the man Christ Jesus, and the union of the two natures being somewhat analogous to the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the believer; that view of the personality of Christ which regards him as consisting of two personalities.
    • n dualism In chem., a theory advanced by Berzelius which assumed that every compound, whether simple or complex, must be constituted of two parts of which one is positively and the other negatively electrified. Thus, for example, sodium sulphate is put together not from sulphur, oxygen, and sodium, but from sulphuric acid and soda, which can themselves be separated into positive and negative constituents. Muir, Principles of Chemistry.
    • n dualism In general, any system or theory involving a duality of principles
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Dualism (philos.) that view which seeks to explain the world by the assumption of two radically independent and absolute elements—e.g. (1) the doctrine of the entire separation of spirit and matter, thus being opposed both to idealism and to materialism; (2) the doctrine of two distinct principles of good and of evil, or of two distinct divine beings of these characters
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. dualisme,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L.,—duo, two.

Usage

In literature:

It leaves no room for any shred of dualism in thought.
"Socialism: Positive and Negative" by Robert Rives La Monte
The dualism of the male, spirit, and the female, matter, is essential to all creation.
"Folkways" by William Graham Sumner
Under the sway of Mars dualism cannot exist.
"William Pitt and the Great War" by John Holland Rose
Only on these three dualisms which I have established can a sound historical philosophy be based.
"The World's Greatest Books--Volume 14--Philosophy and Economics" by Various
The consequences of this dualism for epistemology are very grave.
"The Approach to Philosophy" by Ralph Barton Perry
The resemblance of this scheme to the Mazdean dualism, except in the outcome, is obvious.
"Introduction to the History of Religions" by Crawford Howell Toy
This dualism shows itself in nature as well as in the spiritual world.
"History of Education" by Levi Seeley
Rome had established her dualism in his mind.
"The Perpetual Curate" by Mrs [Margaret] Oliphant
As a rule the gods of Egypt are serene and good beings; here only dualism shows itself.
"History of Religion" by Allan Menzies
Morality, independent of religion, dualism of deities, 182, 249, 266, 267.
"The Religious Sentiment" by Daniel G. Brinton
The development of the conception continued in later Judaism, which was probably more strongly influenced by Persian dualism.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 3" by Various
This dualism is the lowest stage of ontological thought.
"Monophysitism Past and Present" by A. A. Luce
Plato reached, in his philosophy, a conception of a universal creator and father of all, but his doctrine was influenced by dualism.
"History of Human Society" by Frank W. Blackmar
Or rather, we may say, Nicolai stresses the influence of Kant's dualism of the reasons.
"The Forerunners" by Romain Rolland
The old dualism of soul and body will pass away and give place to a flexible naturalism.
"The Next Step in Religion" by Roy Wood Sellars
Voila ce dualisme invetere qu'il semble impossible de chasser de notre vue du monde.
"Essays in Radical Empiricism" by William James
Certainly, such is the tendency of this species of Dualism.
"Women of Mediæval France" by Pierce Butler
Two forms of this dualism are held.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 7" by Various
But to Descartes the dualism is absolute, because it is a presupposition with which he starts.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 4" by Various
There was thus a dualism, to overcome which is the first step in the Hegelian system.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 5" by Various
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In news:

Mind-Body Dualism Is Not Always Healthy.
Textures Streaming New Album, ' Dualism '.
North Hill's Dualism Is A 'Done Deal.
Dancer-choreographer Emio Greco and director-playwright Pieter C Scholten are into mind-body dualism with a vengeance.
The information is all there but the way it is presented is indicative of its authors dualism.
It seems then that we are right back to the Platonic dualism of reason and emotion.
Dualism remains a problem for many Christ followers.
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In science:

The dualism between the structures on world-sheets and in target-space is rather surprising and not yet well-studied phenomenon in string theory, a manifestation of this intrinsic connection – the relation between world-sheet and space-time supersymmetries was already discussed in sect. 3.5.
String Theory or Field Theory?
We begin from the experienced dualism between consciousness (sub ject) and ob ject (any experience in consciousness).
Founding quantum theory on the basis of consciousness
Zurek, in The Wave-Particle Dualism, edited by S.
Phase Diffusion in Quantum Dissipative Systems
In partucular, the concept of “dimerous electron” naturally arises in the framework of complex algebrodynamics and, together with the above-mentioned phase invariant, allows for a novel approach to explanation of quantum interference phenomena alternative to the recently accepted paradigm of wave-particle dualism.
Algbrodynamics over complex space and phase extension of the Minkowski geometry
On the other hand, existence of the geometrical phase makes it possible to suggest a novel treatment of the phenomena of quantum interference, alternative to the generally accepted concept of the wave-particle dualism.
Algbrodynamics over complex space and phase extension of the Minkowski geometry
However, in the above presented picture we do not encounter any sort of the wave-particle dualism, of the de Broglie wave concept, etc.
Algbrodynamics over complex space and phase extension of the Minkowski geometry
However, the absence of dynamical states |α(t)i from this Heisenberg picture, a consequence of insisting on classical kinematical concepts, leads to paradoxes and conceptual inconsistencies (complementarity, dualism, quantum logic, quantum information, and all that).
Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
The dynamical rules which are (explicitly or tacitly) used to describe the effective time dependence of quantum states thus represent a “dynamical dualism”.
Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
The Born/von Neumann dynamical dualism was evidently the ma jor motivation for an ignorance interpretation of the wave function, which attempts to explain the collapse not as a dynamical process in the system, but as an increase of information about it (the reduction of an ensemble of possible states).
Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
However, even though the dynamics of ensembles in classical description uses a formally similar dualism, an analogous interpretation in quantum theory leads to the severe (and apparently fatal) difficulties indicated above.
Decoherence: Basic Concepts and Their Interpretation
The wave-particle dualism, for example, is reflected by the fact that the linear addition of waves has a straightforward meaning, but in quantum mechanics it applies even to systems that have well localized effects, like particles.
Optical tests of quantum nonlocality: from EPR-Bell tests towards experiments with moving observers
But the particle-wave dualism is not the entire story of the superposition principle.
Optical tests of quantum nonlocality: from EPR-Bell tests towards experiments with moving observers
I am now almost at the end of this review, so – as a summary of the summary – let me put on a list of dualisms.
Strange Quark Matter Theory
In general dualisms can be resolved in two ways: either by fusion, merging to a more complex view+, or by decision, which view is correct.
Strange Quark Matter Theory
Here a case by case decision seems to be favorable. • A very important dualism existed between first order and higher order phase transition or crossover at color deconfinement.
Strange Quark Matter Theory
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