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deduction

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n deduction the act of subtracting (removing a part from the whole) "he complained about the subtraction of money from their paychecks"
    • n deduction the act of reducing the selling price of merchandise
    • n deduction reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
    • n deduction something that is inferred (deduced or entailed or implied) "his resignation had political implications"
    • n deduction an amount or percentage deducted
    • n deduction a reduction in the gross amount on which a tax is calculated; reduces taxes by the percentage fixed for the taxpayer's income bracket
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Nearly 22,000 checks will be deducted from the wrong account over the next hour.
    • Deduction Act of deducting or taking away; subtraction; as, the deduction of the subtrahend from the minuend.
    • Deduction Act or process of deducing or inferring. "The deduction of one language from another.""This process, by which from two statements we deduce a third, is called deduction ."
    • Deduction That which is deduced or drawn from premises by a process of reasoning; an inference; a conclusion. "Make fair deductions ; see to what they mount."
    • Deduction That which is or may be deducted; the part taken away; abatement; as, a deduction from the yearly rent in compensation for services; deductions from income in calculating income taxes.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n deduction A drawing or tracing out and setting forth.
    • n deduction The act of deriving; derivation.
    • n deduction In logic, derivation as a result from a known principle; necessary inference; also, the result itself, as so concluded. As a term of logic, it is a translation of Aristotle's ἀπαγωγή (translated deductio by Boëthius), and properly signifies an illative descent from a general principle to the result of that principle in a special case; it is specially used by Aristotle when there is a doubt whether the case truly comes under the principle. By the older logicians it is little used, and not with any exact signification. In modern times it has been chiefly employed by those who hold that all reasoning is either a descent from generals to particulars (deduction) or an ascent from particulars to generals (induction). See deductive reasoning, under deductive.
    • n deduction The act of deducting or taking away; subtraction; abatement: as, the deduction of the subtrahend from the minuend; prompt payment will insure a large deduction.
    • n deduction A payment; a statement of payments.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Deduction (1) the act of deducing: that which is deduced: the drawing of a particular truth from a general, antecedently known, as distinguished from Induction, rising from particular truths to a general; (2) the act of deducting: that which is deducted: abatement
    • ***

Quotations

  • Henry David Thoreau
    Henry%20David%20Thoreau
    “We do not learn by inference and deduction and the application of mathematics to philosophy, but by direct intercourse and sympathy.”
  • Lewis H. Lapham
    Lewis%20H.%20Lapham
    “I never can pass by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York without thinking of it not as a gallery of living portraits but as a cemetery of tax-deductible wealth.”
  • Xaviera Hollander
    Xaviera Hollander
    “Actually, if my business was legitimate, I would deduct a substantial percentage for depreciation of my body.”
  • Albert Einstein
    Albert%20Einstein
    “The grand aim of all science is to cover the greatest number of empirical facts by logical deduction from the smallest number of hypotheses or axioms.”
  • Shelby Friedman
    Shelby Friedman
    “Income tax time is when you test your powers of deduction.”
  • American Proverb
    American Proverb
    “No matter how bad a child is, he is still good for a tax deduction.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. deductio,: cf. F. déduction,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. deducĕre, deductumde, from ducĕre, ductum, to lead.

Usage

In literature:

Moreover, they are subject to arbitrary deductions from their wages.
"The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844 with a Preface written in 1892" by Frederick Engels
One is the inductive method, the other the deductive.
"Public Speaking" by Clarence Stratton
This should make us pause and reflect, before allowing this deduction to be accepted.
"The Healthy Life, Vol. V, Nos. 24-28" by Various
Thinking and deduction .
"We Philologists, Volume 8 (of 18)" by Friedrich Nietzsche
In some of them War Savings subscriptions are obtained by means of deductions from wages.
"The War After the War" by Isaac Frederick Marcosson
Of its actual state our data are not definite enough to furnish much deduction.
"Other Worlds" by Garrett P. Serviss
Here, then, as in proof, induction is implied in deduction, and deduction in induction.
"Logic" by Carveth Read
What made her furious was the absolute stupidity of their deductions.
"Parrot & Co." by Harold MacGrath
In many inductive lessons the step of application really involves a process of deduction.
"Ontario Normal School Manuals: Science of Education" by Ontario Ministry of Education
The tendency of his deductions was negative, and hence we rank him as no ordinary agent toward the growth of historic doubt.
"History of Rationalism Embracing a Survey of the Present State of Protestant Theology" by John F. Hurst
After deducting the expense of hauling, and spreading, it nets me on the land, $30.
"Talks on Manures" by Joseph Harris
There are no errors in his figures, no flaws in his reasoning, no faults in his deductions.
"Albert Gallatin" by John Austin Stevens
Those earlier and heavy impasto studies of his are the evidence of this worthy deduction.
"Adventures in the Arts" by Marsden Hartley
The unstable equilibrium of any homogeneous aggregate can thus be shown both inductively and deductively.
"Essays: Scientific, Political, & Speculative, Vol. I" by Herbert Spencer
Was this some more of her deductive reasoning, or had Cummings dropped a hint?
"The Million-Dollar Suitcase" by Alice MacGowan
If human love be sinful, by logical deduction we would inevitably arrive at the conclusion that the universe is all sinful.
"Sex=The Unknown Quantity" by Ali Nomad
You see there are deductions for rations.
"The Wouldbegoods" by E. Nesbit
An issue therefore arises, the importance of which can be seen by reference to the final aim of the 'deduction', viz.
"Kant's Theory of Knowledge" by Harold Arthur Prichard
Deduct 29 from it and it leaves 7, the erased figure.
"More Conjuring" by Hercat
All reasoning is either deductive or inductive.
"A Critical History of Greek Philosophy" by W. T. Stace
***

In poetry:

There was once a man who made a weird machine,
Employing dynamite and kerosene.
His subsequent destruction
Was a matter of deduction,
And a circumstance that might have been foreseen.
"An Error in Creation" by C J Dennis

In news:

Local property taxes are up for many, snow is sucking up budget bucks by the plow-full, town-imposed non-deductible fees are testing public resistance and we're still being warned that town services and jobs face the scalpel.
It was a mission of grave importance, scientific deduction, physical stamina, gastronomical fortitude and a fine way to spend a lovely fall Sunday.
Officials in both communities are concerned they would end up losing money if the state takes over tax-collection duties and deducts an excessive administrative fee.
Congress split on payroll tax deduction .
Fiscal battle over mortgage deduction.
Washington should stay away from touching the mortgage interest tax deduction, warns the US housing industry.
Powerful interests defend mortgage deduction.
The National Association of Home Builders and other lobbying groups will make their case in Washington to defend the tax deduction for mortgage interest payments.
Don't Eliminate the Charitable Tax Deduction .
Should the Charitable Tax Deduction Be Eliminated.
Some in Congress are looking at ending the mortgage interest tax deduction .
Clothing donations to qualified charitable organizations are tax deductible .
Tax Deduction Cap Deserves Closer Scrutiny, Baucus Says.
Presidential candidates vow to cut deductions.
Romney, President Obama leave much unsaid on plans for eliminating tax deductions.
***

In science:

The next step is to “solve” the model, i.e deductively work out its experimental consequences.
DNA Elasticity : Topology of Self-Avoidance
In fact, they tolerate contradictions within the conclusions, but reject the principle of explosion according to which a single contradiction entails the deduction of every formula.
Preferential and Preferential-discriminative Consequence relations
Natural deduction and coherence for weakly distributive categories.
Simple free star-autonomous categories and full coherence
Parigot. λµ-calculus: an algorithmic interpretation of classical natural deduction.
Simple free star-autonomous categories and full coherence
Natural deduction and coherence for weakly distributive categories.
Simple multiplicative proof nets with units
The sets of the form X = C n(X ) are called theories or deductive systems.
Model-Theoretic Investigations into Consequence Operation (Cn) in Quantum Logics. An Algebraic Approach
In this case it is also said that F is a deductive filter of S or, as is common now, an S -filter of A [15, 6].
Model-Theoretic Investigations into Consequence Operation (Cn) in Quantum Logics. An Algebraic Approach
A successful deduction of the Lamb shift (Fig. 9) in the hydrogen atom provides us with a precision test of bound state QED and offers an opportunity to learn more about the proton size.
Precision physics of simple atoms: QED tests, nuclear structure and fundamental constants
Actually, syllogisms introduced by Aristotle, as well as deduction rules of modern logic are schemas for logical inference and mathematical proofs.
Mathematical Models in Schema Theory
The set RI includes a possibly nonempty set R1, (defined as a unary relations, where (a) = a), and using this set along with an informally described algorithm deductions are obtain for each X ∈ P (L).
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
It is shown there that each such logic-system generates a finite consequence operator C that yields the same deductions when C is applied to any X ∈ P (L).
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
The following is established by induction on the number of steps in a deduction.
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
However, under our definition of how logic-systems are employed for deduction, many other relations can also generate each member of B .
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
Hence, from the definition of logic-systems and how they are used to generate deductions, you could also have a 3-ary relation R3 ∈ RI such that {(h1, a1, x) | x ∈ B } ⊂ R3 .
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
Consequently, in general for non-trivial deduction from premises, it is merely assumed that for any set X ∈ P (L), if there is nonempty B ∈ P (L), B ∩ X =
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
***