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consonance

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n consonance the property of sounding harmonious
    • n consonance the repetition of consonants (or consonant patterns) especially at the ends of words
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Honorificabilitudinitatibus is the longest English word that consists strictly of alternating consonants and vowels
    • Consonance (Mus) Accord or agreement of sounds produced simultaneously, as a note with its third, fifth, and eighth.
    • Consonance Agreement or congruity; harmony; accord; consistency; suitableness. "The perfect consonancy of our persecuted church to the doctrines of Scripture and antiquity.""The optic nerve responds to the waves with which it is in consonance ."
    • Consonance Friendship; concord. "By the consonancy of our youth."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The three-syllable word "hideous," with the change of a single consonant, becomes a two-syllable word with no vowel sounds in common: "hideout."
    • n consonance Accord or agreement of sounds; specifically, in music, a simultaneous combination of two tones that is, by itself, both agreeable and final in effect. The perfect consonances are the unison, the octave, the fifth, and the fourth; the imperfect are the major and minor thirds and the major and minor sixths. The effect of consonances is due to the simplicity of the ratio between the vibration-numbers of their constituent tones. Thus, the ratio of the unison is ; of the octave, ; of the fifth, ; of the fourth, ; of the major sixth, ; of the major third, ; of the minor third, ; of the minor sixth, . Also called concord.
    • n consonance A state of agreement or accordance; congruity; harmony; consistency: as, the consonance of opinions among judges; the consonance of a ritual to the Scriptures.
    • n consonance The sympathetic vibration of a sonorous body, as a piano-string, when another of the same pitch is sounded near it.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • ns Consonance a state of agreement: agreement or unison of sounds:
    • ns Consonance (mus.) a combination of notes which can sound together without the harshness produced by beats: concord
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. consonantia,: cf. F. consonnance,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. consonans, -antis, pr.p. of consonāre, to harmonise—con, with, and sonāre, to sound.

Usage

In literature:

With words beginning with a consonant only the first syllable of the pronoun was used.
"Across Unknown South America" by Arnold Henry Savage Landor
Before a nasal + consonant, as OE.
"A Middle High German Primer" by Joseph Wright
The Corporations were consequently immensely wealthy, and their power and influence were in consonance with that wealth.
"The Philippine Islands" by John Foreman
Such an erratic course was certainly by no means in consonance with the sober and unvarying routine of college study.
"Lavengro The Scholar - The Gypsy - The Priest, Vol. 1 (of 2)" by George Borrow
He was not a dirty old Jew with a hooked nose and an imperfect pronunciation of English consonants.
"Orley Farm" by Anthony Trollope
Through it I could hear harsh chopping consonants, a whining intonation.
"Greylorn" by John Keith Laumer
What a combination of vowels and consonants have been put together!
"Diary in America, Series One" by Frederick Marryat (AKA Captain Marryat)
In the tumult of the water there is consonance with that agitating her own bosom.
"The Death Shot" by Mayne Reid
These could appreciate; and counselled me in consonance with my half-formed resolution.
"The War Trail" by Mayne Reid
Such an erratic course was certainly by no means in consonance with the sober and unvarying routine of college study.
"Lavengro The Scholar, the Gypsy, the Priest" by George Borrow
This is quite consonant with other facts relating to the development of flowers or of leaves in general.
"Vegetable Teratology" by Maxwell T. Masters
The consonant is changed for the sake of euphony.
"Orthography" by Elmer W. Cavins
In a rigorous and abstract sense, the Consonant has no sound of its own.
"The Continental Monthly, Vol 6, No 5, November 1864" by Various
This is a common device in French when a word of Germanic origin begins with two consonants.
"The Romance of Words (4th ed.)" by Ernest Weekley
His lines commonly are of slow motion, clogged and impeded with clusters of consonants.
"The Works of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. in Nine Volumes" by Samuel Johnson
Acts which are consonant with the ideas are imitated.
"Folkways" by William Graham Sumner
Epithesis, or the addition of a final consonant, is common in uneducated speech, e.g.
"The Romance of Names" by Ernest Weekley
To me it seems more consonant with the facts of life.
"Gossamer" by George A. Birmingham
After that he could alter the vowels and consonants to suit his vocal convenience.
"The Merry-Go-Round" by Carl Van Vechten
After consonants the w becomes p; I E akwa water of ak; Gothic ahva river; Dak wakpa river.
"The Dakotan Languages, and Their Relations to Other Languages" by Andrew Woods Williamson
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In poetry:

In nature all is harmony,
A consonance fore'er agreed on,
And 'tis alone our phantom freedom
That is disturbingly off-key.
"How Tuneful Is The Voice Of Sea" by Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev
The surges rolled the reflex of the skies
Before my portals, mystically blending
Their consonance of solemn chords unending
With the nacre and rose ignited in mine eyes.
"Anterior Life (La Vie Anterieure)" by Clark Ashton Smith
As the train passed the forest's tortured icons,
ths floes clanging like freight yards, then the spires
of frozen tears, the stations screeching steam,
he drew them in a single winters' breath
whose freezing consonants turned into stone.
"Forest Of Europe" by Derek Walcott
To ring out thy great frame, if I had skill,
The E'cho thereof should our Iland fill.
So consonant's thy vertue to thy wit,
And so thy outward feature graceth it,
That my Muse may one sillable adde well
Unto thy Surname, and call thee Le-bell.
"To Sir Robert Bell" by Ralph Knevet

In news:

And so does Consonant 's Clint Conley, who handily reinvents the breakup genre with an ironic song title, "Post-Pathetic," on the band's lovelorn debut.
North/South Consonance is a concert series, chamber orchestra, record label and music publisher.
OK, maybe there are some cases when consonants are silent, but you'd never know it unless you were from a place where folks intentionally mispronounce its name.
Specifically, Grimm 's Law concerns consonants.
All the superlatives in the world cannot render consonant advocates of abortion, and those that vote to empower such advocates with the teaching of Jesus Christ.
This approach was consonant with Teller 's lifelong trust in democracy.
Bound tightly between a pair of identical rigid consonants, tryst promises furtive sensuality.
On a worksheet, there are dozens of combinations using a variety of consonants that never spell an actual word .
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In science:

This consideration has led to a quest for consonant closed testing procedures. A closed testing procedure is consonant if the local tests for every I ∈ C are chosen in such a way that rejection of I implies rejection of at least one J ∈ H.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
It is easily shown that for every closed testing procedure there is a consonant procedure that rejects at least as much in X ∩ H.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
Moving from a nonconsonant to a consonant procedure may often lead to a gain in power on the elementary hypotheses.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
From a familywise error perspective, consonance is, therefore, a desirable property, and non-consonant procedures are best avoided (Bittman et al., 2009).
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
Contrary to the application of closed testing for familywise error control, in terms of confidence sets non-consonant rejections do improve the results obtained from the procedure.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
From the definition of consonance it follows immediately that the value of tα (R) in a consonant closed testing procedure is equal to the number of hypotheses in R that are not rejected by the closed testing procedure under a familywise error regime.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
The literature on shortcuts in the closed testing procedure has been focused mainly on consonant procedures, and on finding the rejected individual hypotheses (Grechanovsky and Hochberg, 1999; Zaykin et al., 2002; Hommel, Bretz and Maurer, 2007; Bittman et al., 2009; Brannath and Bretz, 2010).
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
In this section, we loosely extend the concept of shortcuts to non-consonant procedures, and discuss ways of finding tα (R) in a computationally easy way for specific choices of the local test, namely those based on Fisher combinations, on Simes’ inequality, and on sums of normally distributed test statistics.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
Fisher’s method is highly non-consonant, as sum test often are.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
Fisher’s method is highly non-consonant, and can be very powerful, especially if there are many moderately small p-values.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
R due to its large number of non-consonant rejections, but Sidak’s method often has more sets R which have tα (R) = 0, due to a higher number of consonant rejections.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
A very different way to construct confidence intervals of τ (R) while avoiding calculation of the complete closed testing procedure is to use a different multiple testing procedure that still allows non-consonant rejection of some intersection hypotheses.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
These procedures allow familywise error inference on a collection of hypotheses comprising the elementary hypotheses and a selection from the 2n − 1 intersection hypotheses, and may produce non-consonant rejections on these intersection hypotheses.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
In this case, all rejections turn out to be consonant: rejecting the 14 hypotheses with smallest p-values leads to an estimated number of 0 false discoveries.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
Shortcuts for locally consonant closed test procedures. J.
Multiple Testing for Exploratory Research
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