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condenser

Definitions

  • Evans's Non-Condensing Engine
    Evans's Non-Condensing Engine
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n condenser an electrical device characterized by its capacity to store an electric charge
    • n condenser lens used to concentrate light on an object
    • n condenser a hollow coil that condenses by abstracting heat
    • n condenser an apparatus that converts vapor into liquid
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Optical System without Condenser Optical System without Condenser
Action of Condenser Action of Condenser
Forms of Condensers Forms of Condensers

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Chocolate Timeline:1824: John Cadbury, an English Quaker, begins roasting and grinding chocolate beans to sell in his tea and coffee shop. In 1842 Cadbury's Chocolate Company in England creates the first chocolate bar. 1875: A Swiss chocolate maker, Daniel Peter, mixes Henri Nestle's condensed milk with chocolate and the two men found a company to manufacture the first milk chocolate. 1894: Milton Hershey adds a line of chocolate to his caramel manufacturing business. Soon he invents the Hershey Bar by experimenting with milk chocolate. Hershey's Cocoa appears next. 1896: Leonard Hershfield invents the Tootsie Roll, named after his daughter. 1897: Brownies are first mentioned in print, listed for sale in the Sears, Roebuck and Co. catalogue. 1940: The Mars company invents M&M's for soldiers going to World War II.
    • Condenser (Physic) A lens or mirror, usually of short focal distance, used to concentrate light upon an object.
    • Condenser (Chem) An apparatus for receiving and condensing the volatile products of distillation to a liquid or solid form, by cooling.
    • Condenser (Steam Engine) An apparatus, separate from the cylinder, in which the exhaust steam is condensed by the action of cold water or air. See Illust. of Steam engine.
    • Condenser (Physic) An instrument for concentrating electricity by the effect of induction between conducting plates separated by a nonconducting plate.
    • Condenser (Physic) An instrument for condensing air or other elastic fluids, consisting of a cylinder having a movable piston to force the air into a receiver, and a valve to prevent its escape.
    • Condenser One who, or that which, condenses.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The condensed water vapor in the sky left behind by jets is called a contrail.
    • n condenser One who or that which condenses.
    • n condenser Specifically— Any device for reducing gases or vapors to liquid or solid form. The reduction is usually effected by lowering the temperature of the vapor by contact with chilled surfaces. A form of condenser common in the laboratory is shown in the figure. From the flask, A, the vapor to be condensed escapes through the tube b c, which passes through a larger condenser-tube. A stream of ice-water enters the condenser through d, and passes off through g, keeping the surface of the inner tube, b c, chilled, and the vapor entering the tube from A is condensed and drops from c as a liquid. Condensers used to concentrate vapors or gases, as steam, alcoholic vapors, fumes, volatile liquids, etc., commonly depend upon the reducing effects of a lower temperature. In them the vapor, gas, smoke, or fumes are brought into immediate contact with chilled surfaces. This is accomplished in a great variety of ways, as in the surface condenser of the steam-engine, the worm of a still, or the long convoluted tubes in which poisonous fumes or smoke are cooled before being allowed to escape to the chimney. The cooling surfaces are usually kept cold by water, as in the still, the gas-condenser, the sugar-condenser, etc. For fumes and smoke, the contact with walls exposed to the air is sufficient.
    • n condenser A part of a cotton-gin which compresses the lint for convenient handling.
    • n condenser In wool-manuf., a machine which forms the wool received from the doffer of a carding-engine or comber, and rolls it into slubbings. The doffer of the carding-engine is covered by a series of parallel strips of card-clothing, wrapped about the cylinder. The wool thus comes off in a number of loose flat ribbons of fleece, which in the condensing-machine are carried by a leather apron beneath a roller which has a reciprocating motion transverse to their direction, and thus rolls these slivers into loose slubbings, which are wound upon a roll and are ready for spinning.
    • n condenser In the manufacture of sugar, the apparatus used for concentrating the clarified juice, preparatory to its final concentration in the vacuum or evap-orating-pan. The liquor trickles over the surface of steam-pipes, where heat evaporates the water which constitutes the greater part of the cane-juice.
    • n condenser In optical instruments, a lens, or combination of lenses, used to gather and concentrate the rays of light collected by a mirror and direct them upon the object, as the bull's-eye condenser (see bull's-eye, 9) and the achromatic condenser used with the microscope.
    • n condenser A device for removing from a current of gas such elements as will be caused to fall out from the gas by reducing its temperature. Tar arrd ammonia are separable in this way.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The name of the point at which condensation begin is called the dew point.
    • Condenser an apparatus for reducing vapours to a liquid form: an appliance for collecting or condensing electricity
    • ***

Quotations

  • Robert Southey
    Robert%20Southey
    “If you would be pungent, be brief; for it is with words as with sunbeams -- the more they are condensed, the deeper they burn.”
  • James Mackintosh
    James Mackintosh
    “Maxims are the condensed good sense of nations.”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “If you must cry over spilled milk then please try to condense it”
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson
    Ralph%20Waldo%20Emerson
    “Condense some daily experience into a glowing symbol and an audience is electrified.”
  • Robert Southey
    Robert%20Southey
    “It is with words as with sunbeams -- the more they are condensed, the deeper they burn.”

Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. condensārecon, inten., and densus, dense.

Usage

In literature:

The condensers of the figure are merely conventionals to represent the condenser which the line itself forms.
"Cyclopedia of Telephony & Telegraphy Vol. 1" by Kempster Miller
But how can condensation cause light?
"Recreations in Astronomy" by Henry Warren
The furnace oil as condensed contains about 30 to 50 per cent.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 794, March 21, 1891" by Various
Coal is condensed sunshine, still keeping all the old light and power.
"Among the Forces" by Henry White Warren
Condensed milk if thinned with water makes a good substitute for sweet milk, after you get used to it.
"Outdoor Sports and Games" by Claude H. Miller
Let each sentence be a condensed battering ram, swinging to its final blow on the attention.
"The Art of Public Speaking" by Dale Carnagey (AKA Dale Carnegie) and J. Berg Esenwein
Most of us have at times profited by the heat of condensation.
"General Science" by Bertha M. Clark
Condensed and adapted by J.A.
"Life of Charles Dickens" by Frank Marzials
A very good condensing engine will work with 2.2 lb.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 508, September 26, 1885" by Various
Julie did not gain the prize, and her story was rather spoiled by having to be too closely condensed.
"Juliana Horatia Ewing And Her Books" by Horatia K. F. Eden
Meeting cold currents of air, the vapours condense in rain, and fall upon the earth.
"The Chemistry of Hat Manufacturing" by Watson Smith
Moreover, these condensed sentences are often vague, full of innuendo, and mysterious as hieroglyphics.
"Essays on Scandinavian Literature" by Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen
What will the reader think of Leadenhall Market being condensed and floating?
"Canada and the Canadians" by Sir Richard Henry Bonnycastle
Perhaps the most eminent writer of this class is Mr. Granville Penn, whose opinions may be thus condensed.
"Omphalos" by Philip Henry Gosse
Condensed milk is preserved by the sugar added to it; so are candied and, in part, dried fruits.
"A Civic Biology" by George William Hunter
Yet more, this condensation is accompanied by the disengagement of heat.
"Illustrations of Universal Progress" by Herbert Spencer
It was not until 1853 that H. L. Fizeau added to the break the condenser which greatly improved the operation of the coil.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 5" by Various
It represents the acme of mechanical condensation.
"The Modern Railroad" by Edward Hungerford
Wilson cannot resist amplifying even while he is condensing.
"The Mystery of the Pinckney Draught" by Charles C. Nott
The story, if condensed, was complete.
"The Pillar of Light" by Louis Tracy
***

In poetry:


Prune thou thy words; the thoughts control
That o'er thee swell and throng;--
They will condense within thy soul,
And change to purpose strong.
"Flowers Without Fruit" by John Henry Newman
"For instance, take a Haunted Tower,
With skull, cross-bones, and sheet;
Blue lights to burn (say) two an hour,
Condensing lens of extra power,
And set of chains complete:
"Phantasmagoria Canto IV ( Hys Nouryture )" by Lewis Carroll
"Or what is wit?" a meteor bright and rare,
What comes and goes we know not whence, or where;
A brilliant nothing out of something wrought,
A mental vacuum by condensing thought.
"Eccentricity" by Washington Allston
Now are they air condensed, or gather'd rays?
How guide they then our prayer or keep our ways,
By stronger blasts still subject to be toss'd,
By tempests scatter'd, and in whirlwinds lost?
"Solomon on the Vanity of the World, A Poem. In Three Books. - Knowledge. Book I." by Matthew Prior
whose condensation is the marble sweat
of angels' foreheads, which will never dry
till Borealis shuts the peacock lights
of its slow fan from L.A. to Archangel,
and memory needs nothing to repeat.
"Forest Of Europe" by Derek Walcott
That watched you fill your beds out of the condensation of thin
vapor and watched you change them,
That saw you soft and violent wear your boundaries down, eat
rock, shift places with the continents.
"Continent's End" by Robinson Jeffers

In news:

Author to condense 12 James Bond novels into 140 character tweets.
Condensed 'King Lear' can be confusing.
The condensed liberal handbook of racial code words.
Mitt Romney arrived Tuesday at the condensed Republican National Convention in Tampa as organizers kept a nervous eye on Hurricane Isaac churning toward Louisiana's coast.
Condensed schedule challenges Hillwood, other Metro schools.
Campbell will raise the price of its condensed soups in June.
Weary Dallas club suffers early TKO, but must muscle up in condensed season.
What is the difference between evaporated and condensed milk .
The SW70-H19 handheld condenser microphone combines Sabine's 2.4 GHz wireless system with Voice Technologies' condenser capsule.
What's the best way to design an air-cooled condenser rating simulation.
I have an air-cooled condenser and want to make a rating simulation.
How do I deal with small subcondensers with condensation in tubes.
We are facing problem in a urea HP condenser .
I am not familiar with steam turbine condensers .
I have always loved condensers on guitar amps, but some are brash-sounding and can overload.
***

In science:

If the photon density becomes larger than a critical value, then the photons condense at the frequency ν = 0 (Bose condensation).
Spectral methods in general relativistic astrophysics
By having condensation only of modes for which Pn α=0 kα = 0, the cubic interaction term cannot induce the condensation of macroscopic density-sector fluctuations.
Random solids and random solidification: What can be learned by exploring systems obeying permanent random constraints?
The momentum transfer to the condensate atoms depletes the condensate and heats the cloud due to the transferred recoil energy [1,2].
Comment on the paper: Quantum backaction of optical observations on Bose-Einstein condensates by U. Leonhardt, T. Kiss, and P. Piwnicki, Eur. Phys. J. D7, 413 (1999)
They compared the three-body recombination rate constant in condensed and non-condensed Bose gases.
The Theory of Atom Lasers
Guided by the fact that the energy spectrum above a certain value ER is unaffected by the presence of the condensate, we can divide the field into the condensate band (all energy levels below ER ) and the non-condensate band (all the energy levels above ER ), as represented in Fig. 4.
The Theory of Atom Lasers
In this treatment, the condensate wavefunction and energy eigenvalue (the condensate chemical potential µC (N ) ) are given by the time-independent Gross-Pitaevskii equation with n0 atoms.
The Theory of Atom Lasers
Other collision processes, in which the pair of colliding atoms either begins or ends in the condensate band, will in principle also contribute to growth or scattering, but can be neglected since the condensate band contains such a small fraction of all the atoms.
The Theory of Atom Lasers
However, in the early stages of condensate growth when n0 is small, the unperturbed spectrum should be used, and will be accurate provided none of the condensate band levels are too highly populated.
The Theory of Atom Lasers
Figure 6. (a) Comparison of condensate growth models for a final condensate fraction of 24%.
The Theory of Atom Lasers
The CFL phase requires husi and hdsi condensates; such condensates which pair quarks with differing Fermi momenta can only exist if the resulting gaps are larger than of order m2 s /2µ, the difference between u and s Fermi momenta in the absence of pairing.
Color Superconductivity in Compact Stars
The critical temperature Tc above which no condensate forms is of order the zero-temperature gap ∆. (Tc = 0.57∆ for J = 0 condensates .) Therefore, if there are quarks for which ∆ ∼ T or smaller, these quarks do not pair at temperature T .
Color Superconductivity in Compact Stars
At first glance, it seems that because a diquark Cooper pair has nonzero electric charge, a diquark condensate must exhibit the standard Meissner effect, expelling ordinary magnetic fields or restricting them to flux tubes within whose cores the condensate vanishes.
Color Superconductivity in Compact Stars
The attraction causes the charged fermions to bind into charged Cooper pairs, and those Cooper pairs condense into a Bose condensate.
Hot or dense matter
The dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry is associated with the condensation of quark - anti-quark pairs in the QCD vacuum, h ¯qqi, which is analogous to the condensation of Cooper pairs in the theory of superconductivity .
Spectral Change of Hadrons and Chiral Symmetry
Experimental and theoretical studies of electronic relaxation processes leading to molecular reactions and/or phase transitions in condensed matter are among the most exciting goals in molecular and condensed matter science.
TESLA Technical Design Report Part I: Executive Summary
***