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cell

Definitions

  • Entrance to Raleigh's Cell in the Tower
    Entrance to Raleigh's Cell in the Tower
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n cell (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals
    • n cell a device that delivers an electric current as the result of a chemical reaction
    • n cell a room where a prisoner is kept
    • n cell small room in which a monk or nun lives
    • n cell any small compartment "the cells of a honeycomb"
    • n cell a hand-held mobile radiotelephone for use in an area divided into small sections, each with its own short-range transmitter/receiver
    • n cell a small unit serving as part of or as the nucleus of a larger political movement
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Worker brood and queen cells Worker brood and queen cells
Cells of Cartilage Cells of Cartilage
Diagram and Section of the Air-cells Diagram and Section of the Air-cells

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Dead cells in the body ultimately go to the kidneys for excretion
    • Cell (Elec) A jar of vessel, or a division of a compound vessel, for holding the exciting fluid of a battery.
    • Cell A small religious house attached to a monastery or convent. "Cells or dependent priories."
    • Cell A very small and close apartment, as in a prison or in a monastery or convent; the hut of a hermit. "The heroic confessor in his cell ."
    • Cell Any small cavity, or hollow place.
    • Cell (Biol) One of the minute elementary structures, of which the greater part of the various tissues and organs of animals and plants are composed.
    • Cell (Arch) Same as Cella.
    • Cell (Arch) The space between the ribs of a vaulted roof.
    • v. t Cell sĕl To place or inclose in a cell. "Celled under ground."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Every human spent about half an hour as a single cell.
    • cell To shut up in a cell; place in a cell.
    • n cell One of the water-tight compartments into which the space between the inner and outer shells of a war-vessel, or other metal ship, is divided.
    • n cell In archaeology, the inner chamber of megalithic structures, which consists of a space walled by large stones and covered with a slab.
    • n cell In spectroscopy, a small glass vessel with parallel sides designed to hold liquids for examination by transmitted light.
    • n cell In kinematics, a symmetrical combination of an even number of links.
    • n cell the dependent nature of the latter and the primacy of the cell; and the resolution of the physiological activities of the multicellular organism into those of the constituent cells. See plastid, Morgan, and person.
    • n cell According to a second view, which is sometimes called the organism standpoint, the essential primary distinctive characteristic of a multicellular organism is its individuality or unity, while its composition out of cells is an indication of its organization, but not the means through which organization has been brought about; its individuality is directly comparable with, or of the same grade as, that of a unicellular organism, and there is no reason why it may not have arisen, in the remote past, through the growth and increasing complexity of a unicellular ancestor which gradually became multicellular in adaptation to its increasing size and complexity. The unity of the egg is regarded as the same as that of the adult and as regulating instead of being controlled by cell-division, which makes no change in the grade of its individuality. Physiologically it is regarded as a coordinated whole, not as an aggregation of cells.
    • n cell While there is much to be said in support of each of these opinions, there are grave objections to the acceptance of either of them without compromises with the other, and there is a third view which regards the distinction between the cell standpoint and the organism standpoint as dependent upon the purpose for which the comparison is made, and as in the mind of the interpreter instead of in nature. For many of the purposes of the histologist, the pathologist, the embryologist, and the physiologist the multicellular organism is best considered as a cell-community, while for other purposes it is best considered as a unit or coordinated whole. From the morphological standpoint the cell may properly be regarded apart from the organism, as an individual, but it is not to be forgotten that it is by abstraction that this is done. Physiologically the cell is an individual only when actually isolated and independent of an organism. From this point of view every abstraction is a blunder.
    • n cell One of the multi-nucleate cells which occur in the red marrow of the bones, or one of the ganglionic cells in the deeper layers of the brain-cortex.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Humans shed and re-grow outer skin cells about every 27 days almost 1,000 new skins in a lifetime.
    • n Cell sel a small room in a prison, monastery, &c.: a cave: a small shut cavity: the grave: a unit-mass of living matter, whether rounded off by itself, as in the simplest plants or animals, and in the youngest stage of all organisms, or associated with other cells to form a higher unity
    • n Cell the substance of which the permanent cell-membranes of plants are composed
    • ***

Quotations

  • Vladimir Nabokov
    Vladimir%20Nabokov
    “The tiny madman in his padded cell.”
  • Thomas A. Edison
    Thomas%20A.%20Edison
    “The body is a community made up of its innumerable cells or inhabitants.”
  • Thomas Gray
    Thomas Gray
    “Each in his narrow cell for ever laid, the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.”
  • Eliza Cook
    Eliza Cook
    “Better build schoolrooms for the boy, than cells and gibbets for the man.”
  • Peace Pilgrim
    Peace%20Pilgrim
    “We are all cells in the same body of humanity.”
  • Eugene O'Neill
    Eugene O'Neill
    “Life is a solitary cell whose walls are mirrors.”

Idioms

Grey cells - 'Grey cells' means 'brain' Eg: Use your grey cells to understand it
***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OF. celle, fr. L. cella,; akin to celare, to hide, and E. hell, helm, conceal,. Cf. Hall

Usage

In literature:

The female germinative cell, on the contrary, is immobile and much larger than the male cell.
"The Sexual Question" by August Forel
Nerve centers may be considered as a collection or group of nerve cells.
"Special Report on Diseases of Cattle" by U.S. Department of Agriculture
How are the cells imbedded in certain tissues?
"A Treatise on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene (Revised Edition)" by Calvin Cutter
The colonel summoned the sheriff, who took Joe to his cell.
"The Bondboy" by George W. (George Washington) Ogden
In this way of representing a battery each cell is represented by a short heavy line and a longer lighter line.
"Letters of a Radio-Engineer to His Son" by John Mills
The egg cell from the white parent carries the factor for white, the pollen cell from the red parent carries the factor for red.
"A Critique of the Theory of Evolution" by Thomas Hunt Morgan
The interior of the cell was very dim.
"Before Egypt" by E. K. Jarvis
These are the cells, about 25,000 in number, where the candidates for degrees used to be shut up during the examination period.
"Letters from China and Japan" by John Dewey
The corporal on guard was going to unlock two contiguous cells for the prisoners, but one of the men in charge of them objected.
"'Jena' or 'Sedan'?" by Franz Beyerlein
We were soon placed in our respective cells and the iron barred doors locked.
"History of Morgan's Cavalry" by Basil W. Duke
There was another cell next to his.
"Rastignac the Devil" by Philip José Farmer
The centrosome was also conspicuous in all of the cells of this group.
"Studies in Spermatogenesis (Part 1 of 2)" by Nettie Maria Stevens
All those sick were in cells in one end of the prison.
"Health Lessons" by Alvin Davison
New cells sprout out from the side of the old cells like young lilies on an old lily bulb.
"Applied Physiology" by Frank Overton
He was awakened a half hour later by the sound of the cell door opening.
"Warrior of the Dawn" by Howard Carleton Browne
Gerry's guards led him down a narrow corridor, past the steel doors of cells.
"The Golden Amazons of Venus" by John Murray Reynolds
Women in her sad position are always allowed a female companion in the cell.
"Tried for Her Life" by Emma Dorothy Eliza Nevitte Southworth
I wonder whether it is the tapping of prisoners' messages from cell to cell, of which I have heard.
"Within Prison Walls" by Thomas Mott Osborne
I stretch myself out on the wooden bench, running along the wall of the cell, and at once fall asleep.
"Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist" by Alexander Berkman
The cells at Fort 9 were all of them always full, and there was a very long waiting list besides.
"The Escaping Club" by A. J. Evans
***

In poetry:

Mr. H. G. Wells
Was composed of cells.
He thought the human race
Was a perfect disgrace.
"Clerihew – Wells" by Edmund Clerihew Bentley
He'll hear no tone
Of the maiden he loves so well!
No telephone
Communicates with his cell!
"HMS Pinafore: Act II" by William Schwenck Gilbert
RALPH. Farewell, my own,
Light of my life, farewell!
For crime unknown
I go to a dungeon cell.
"HMS Pinafore: Act II" by William Schwenck Gilbert
Unknown her face and name,
But this he knew right well,
The maiden's wailing came
From out a dungeon cell.
"The Troubadour" by William Schwenck Gilbert
In prison cell I sadly sit,
A dammed crestfallen chappie,
And own to you I feel a bit--
A little bit—unhappy.
"Butchered to make a Dutchman's Holiday" by Harry Breaker Morant
'Tis to sleep in a clayey cell,
With corruption for our bride;
Deaf, dumb, insensible,
Waked by no morning's tide.
"Death" by John Bowring

In news:

The fuel cell supply chain, made up of companies that provide high-quality, economically competitive critical components for the fuel cell stack, is an area that has been somewhat overlooked.
Versa Power Systems, which Fuel Cell Energy partially owns, will provide the basic technology for the fuel cell .
The state Adirondack Park Agency wants to ease the permitting process for installing a second cell tower in a site that already has an APA-approved cell tower.
Neural progenitor cells derived from human urine cells.
While studying skin cells derived from stem cells, researchers found genetic variation at the cellular level: skin cells displayed varying levels of copy number variations.
T Cell Receptor Stimulation-Induced Epigenetic Changes and Foxp3 Expression Are Independent and Complementary Events Required for Treg Cell Development p785.
Researchers at Ohio State University used heat-generating cells injected in to the bellies of mice to turn bad fat cells in to energy-burning fat.
When the leukemia came back, it no longer had the specific CD-19 receptor that doctors had engineered her T-cells to identify on leukemic cells.
"Tip links are absolutely vital to hair cells, and hair cells are absolutely vital for hearing and balance," says Corey.
The lawmakers want to include cell phones to the state law, even though federal law already prohibits telemarketers from including cell phone numbers on auto-dialers.
Tucson News NowHadasit Bio-Holdings Ltd Portfolio Company Cell Cure Neurosciences Ltd Receives Additional Financing From BioTime Inc. About Cell Cure Neurosciences Ltd. About Hadasit Bio-Holdings Ltd.
On her way home from London, Sara Gartman checked her cell phone and saw the text message from a friend she'd just left: "if we had met earlier and u werent leaving " read the line he'd tapped in from his own cell phone.
In classical Hodgkin lymphoma, Reed-Sternberg cells (HRS) play a large part in refractory or progressive disease, but studying these giant cells has proven difficult.
One trial will involve patients with CD30-positive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and the other patients with CD30-positive mature T-cell lymphomas (MTCL).
The better the match between the molecule and a protein that regulates the behavior of a cancerous cell, the more likely that the molecule will bind to the protein, disrupt its function and kill the cell.
***

In science:

If, instead of a union set, we form the intersection set of two level-cut random-fields, we obtain an open-cell model comprised of the cell-edges of the closed-cell model.
Elastic moduli of model random three-dimensional closed-cell cellular solids
While the modulus of the closed cell Voronoi tessellation can be approximately described by a single cell of the tetrakaidecahedral model, it is not possible to model the effect of missing faces and irregular cells with curved walls using single-cell models.
Elastic moduli of model random three-dimensional closed-cell cellular solids
The cell complex Ω, dual to ∆, is obtained by defining, for each point pi, a cell Ωi to be the set of all manifold points which are closer to pi than to any other pj ; the set of all such cells as pi varies is the desired complex .
Statistical geometry of random weave states
Computational cells can be characterized by the level of cells l in the tree. A cell size ∆l is related to the cell level as ∆l = L/2l, where L is the size of the computational domain.
Local and global properties of conformally flat initial data for black hole collisions
The word ‘composite’ is used in the following sense: given any universal cell, its target cell is said to be a composite of its source cells.
An alternative characterisation of universal cells in opetopic n-categories
We will adopt the (more practical) method of Hermida, Makkai and Power (), picking one ordering of source elements in order to represent a symmetry class. A k-cell has as its source a pasting diagram of (k − 1)-cells, and as its target a single (k − 1)-cell.
An alternative characterisation of universal cells in opetopic n-categories
Composition of k-cells is given by universal (k + 1)-cells, so in order to construct a composition span for a k-cell f, we must assume that for all m > k the universal m-cells have been defined.
An alternative characterisation of universal cells in opetopic n-categories
It is not difficult to recognize that ensembles with constant densities over the phase cells are quasiequilibria; corresponding macroscopic variables are integrals of the density over the phase cells (“occupation numbers” of the cells).
Geometry of irreversibility: The film of nonequilibrium states
Each forward-shell is now further divided into rectangular momentum cells of length O(M −j/2 ) in the direction parallel to the center of the cell, and of width M −k−j/2 in the direction perpendicular to the center of the cell.
Random Matrices and the Anderson Model
Finally, for each such cell, the cube ∆ is divided into corresponding dual tubes τ of length M k+j/2 in the direction perpendicular to the center of the cell, and of width M j/2 in the direction parallel to the center of the cell.
Random Matrices and the Anderson Model
Each shell is now further partitioned into O(M j−k ) cells γ of width M −j/2 in the direction perpendicular to the center of the cell, and length M −j/2−k in the direction parallel to the center of the cell.
Random Matrices and the Anderson Model
With N the number of cells on the (D3, D3) + (D3, D3) worldvolume, the natural excitations to look at (in the non-perturbative regime where the string coupling constant gs is of O(1) and the finite cell sizes, being proportional to g 2 s, become relevant) are links starting and ending on any of these cells.
Black Holes, Space-Filling Chains and Random Walks
Consider a mechanical system of n balls and k cells such that each ball is assigned to a cell. A state of the entire system is described by a random distribution of the particles in the cells.
Measure convolution semigroups and non-infinitely divisible probability distributions
If (a, b, c) ∈ Ri then the (i + 1)-cell c is a “bridge” from the i-cell a to the i-cell b.
Weak Omega Categories I
If (a, b, c) ∈ RX Moreover, the fact that X3 is freely generated means that there are no relations among its 2-cells so that κX must send any 2-cell isomorphism to an identity cell.
Weak Omega Categories I
***