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cancer

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n Cancer type genus of the family Cancridae
    • n Cancer the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22
    • n Cancer a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini
    • n Cancer (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer
    • n cancer any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Sharks are immune to cancer
    • Cancer (Zoöl) A genus of decapod Crustacea, including some of the most common shore crabs of Europe and North America, as the rock crab, Jonah crab, etc. See Crab.
    • Cancer (Astron) A northern constellation between Gemini and Leo.
    • Cancer (Med) Formerly, any malignant growth, esp. one attended with great pain and ulceration, with cachexia and progressive emaciation. It was so called, perhaps, from the great veins which surround it, compared by the ancients to the claws of a crab. The term is now restricted to such a growth made up of aggregations of epithelial cells, either without support or embedded in the meshes of a trabecular framework.
    • Cancer (Astron) The fourth of the twelve signs of the zodiac. The first point is the northern limit of the sun's course in summer; hence, the sign of the summer solstice. See Tropic.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Every year in the U.S., there are 178,000 new cases of lung cancer
    • n cancer [capitalized] [NL.] In zoology, the typical genus of brachyurous decapodous crustaceans of the family Cancridæ: formerly more than conterminous with the order Decapoda, now restricted to the common edible crab of Europe, C. pagurus, and its immediate congeners. See crab.
    • n cancer [capitalized] In astronomy, a constellation and also a sign of the zodiac, represented by the form of a crab, and showing the limits of the sun's course northward in summer; hence, the sign of the summer solstice (marked ♋).
    • n cancer In pathology, a malignant tumor technically named carcinoma (which see); also, by extension, any malignant tumor, as one of certain adenomata and sarcomata.
    • n cancer A plant, possibly cancerwort.
    • n cancer The term cancer, as commonly employed, includes those new growths which possess certain attributes that render them especially dangerous to life, and which are therefore called malignant. Malignant tumors growby infiltration and destruction of the surrounding tissues, and are characterized by a tendency to recur after removal, by the property of spreading to other parts of the body by a process of dissemination known as metastasis, and by producing a general disturbance of health termed cachexia. From the standpoint, of the pathologist two chief groups of cancerous tumors are recognized: the carcinomata, or true cancers, and the sarcomata. The fundamental difference between these two is the fact that carcinoma originates in the epithelial tissues of the body, whereas sarcoma develops from the connective tissues. This difference in origin gives rise to certain structural characteristics which enable the microscopist readily to distinguish one type from the other. Carcinoma is rare before the age of thirty; it is somewhat commoner in women than in men; and it is most often seen in the uterus, skin, breast, and stomach. Sarcoma is a disease of early adult life, is more prone to attack men than women, and is commonly found in the subcutaneous tissue, bony structures, and lymph-nodes. Carcinoma is conveyed from one part of the body to another through the lymphatic vessels, sarcoma by way of the blood-stream. In spite of an enormous amount of research devoted to this subject, the exciting cause of cancer is still unknown. The influences of heredity, climate, food, race, social condition, and local injury have all been invoked as factors concerned, but without arriving at any degree of certainty. The theory referring the developmentof malignant tumors to the presence of minute animal or vegetable organisms has numerous adherents, but it has not been definitely established, and many prominent authorities consider that the explanation is to be sought for in a disturbance of some still undiscovered fundamental law governing the growth of cells. Although it appears that cancer is increasing somewhat in frequency, the percentage of cures is increasing much more rapidly, owing to the earlier diagnoses and more thorough operations which are now possible. Extirpation by the knife as promptly and as completely as possible, when the growth is accessible, is regarded as the method of treatment that offers the greatest hope of a cure; but the employment of the X-rays or other form of radioactivity has in a number of instances given excellent results.
    • n cancer Figuratively, a moral or social evil likened to a cancer in its malignant character and corroding tendency: as, “sloth is a cancer,”
    • cancer To corrode or eat into, in the manner and with the steadily destructive persistency of a cancer.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The first owner of the Marlboro Company died of lung cancer
    • n Cancer kan′sėr the name for an important group of malignant tumours, divided into two groups, Carcinomata and Sarcomata, the name being now strictly used only of the former: a constellation between Gemini and Leo, and a sign of the zodiac showing the limits of the sun's course northward in summer: the typical genus of the family Cancridæv.i. Cancer′ate, to become cancerous
    • ***

Quotations

  • Maya Angelou
    Maya%20Angelou
    “Bitterness is like cancer. It eats upon the host. But anger is like fire. It burns it all clean.”
  • Gilbert Adair
    Gilbert Adair
    “We need cancer because, by the very fact of its insurability, it makes all other diseases, however virulent, not cancer.”
  • Cindy Crawford
    Cindy Crawford
    “I don't think makeup is rocket science or a cure for cancer.”
  • Edward Abbey
    Edward Abbey
    “Growth for the sake of growth is the ideology of the cancer cell.”
  • Kate Moss
    Kate Moss
    “Now I'm being blamed not only for anorexia but for lung cancer. [On being a high-profile social smoker]”
  • Francesco Petrarch
    Francesco Petrarch
    “Suspicion is the cancer of friendship.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. cancer, cancri, crab, ulcer, a sign of the zodiac; akin to Gr. karki`nos, Skr. karkaṭa, crab, and prob. Skr. karkara, hard, the crab being named from its hard shell. Cf. Canner Chancre
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. cancer; cog. with Gr. karkinos, a crab.

Usage

In literature:

And such rebellions are our most terrible disease-processes, cancer and sarcoma.
"Preventable Diseases" by Woods Hutchinson
He had been wronged, and a great wrong is to the nature as a cancer is to the body; there is no health.
"Wisdom, Wit, and Pathos of Ouida" by Ouida
The state of slavery which is thus brought on is the worst form of cancer to which humanity is subject.
"My Reminiscences" by Rabindranath Tagore
He died of a stomach attack of a cancerous nature, on the 5th April.
"Memoirs of the Court of George IV. 1820-1830 (Vol 1)" by Duke of Buckingham and Chandos
You say my other pages reek with filthy "cures for cancer"?
"Rippling Rhymes" by Walt Mason
Two of the major uses of hypnosis are in childbirth and for intractable pain of cancer or some other incurable diseases.
"A Practical Guide to Self-Hypnosis" by Melvin Powers
Like a cancer, it spread its roots throughout the whole social and economic structure of the Southern States.
"The Blot on the Kaiser's 'Scutcheon" by Newell Dwight Hillis
THE PREPUCE, PHIMOSIS, AND CANCER.
"History of Circumcision from the Earliest Times to the Present" by Peter Charles Remondino
In exceptional cases they prove cancerous, as they usually are in man.
"Special Report on Diseases of the Horse" by United States Department of Agriculture
Crossing the Tropic of Cancer, the English came to an anchor off a little island a league to the northward of Mapatalan.
"Notable Voyagers" by W.H.G. Kingston and Henry Frith
Almost midway between the United States and China a mountain chain more than three thousand miles long crosses the tropic of Cancer.
"Wealth of the World's Waste Places and Oceania" by Jewett Castello Gilson
An old man might live perhaps with such a mental cancer, but it will destroy a child.
"The Day of Wrath" by Maurus Jókai
Thus it is ordinarily prohibited by consumption, scrofula, skin affections of long standing, and cancer.
"The Physical Life of Woman:" by Dr. George H Napheys
In every walk of life I find this cancer eating the heart out of men.
"The Root of Evil" by Thomas Dixon
I think we care too highly for the cancerous and the consumptive.
"The Tyranny of the Dark" by Hamlin Garland
At last we cleared the awful cancer and flew over the sea.
"Greener Than You Think" by Ward Moore
On the 6th of September they reached the Tropic of Cancer.
"The Adventures of the Chevalier De La Salle and His Companions, in Their Explorations of the Prairies, Forests, Lakes, and Rivers, of the New World, and Their Interviews with the Savage Tribes, Two Hundred Years Ago" by John S. C. Abbott
The cancer must be cut out, with no roots left in the body politic to spread its hideous disease again.
"The Spirit of Lafayette" by James Mott Hallowell
I have treated some thirty cancer cases, the cure in all being complete.
"Buchanan's Journal of Man, April 1887" by Various
The Louisiana lottery is a positive evil, a cancerous sore on the body politic.
"The Arena" by Various
***

In poetry:

Fleeing in rain and in tempest,
Saw by the cataract's bed,--
Cancers of ulcerous fire,
Wounds of a bloody red,--
Its windows glare in the darkness
Eyes of a dragon's head.
"Elphin" by Madison Julius Cawein
Joy is no knocking nation, sir and madam,
The cancer's fashion, or the summer feather
Lit on the cuddled tree, the cross of fever,
Not city tar and subway bored to foster
Man through macadam.
"When, Like A Running Grave" by Dylan Thomas
Slander shall mar thy purest work, And spot thy fairest robe;
The cancer-roots of evil lurk Throughout the groaning globe;
The thing well-done might better be;
And there are thousand faults in thee.
"Detraction" by Martin Farquhar Tupper
"Come in and sit down, Mister Jones."
He thanks me in sepulchral tones.
Poor chap! I hear his creaking bones.
"Have a cigar? And how's your wife?
What's that! You're fearing for her life -
A cancer and the surgeon's knife. . . .
"The Key Of The Street" by Robert W Service
Ay,—slaves of slaves! What, sleep ye yet,
And dream of Freedom, while ye sleep?
Ay,—dream, while Slavery's foot is set
So firmly on your necks,—while deep
The chain her quivering flesh endures
Gnaws, like a cancer, into yours?
"The Tocsin" by John Pierpont
Within her room a beauteous maiden lay,
Moaning in agony no words express,
A cancer eating rapidly away
Her vital force,--so foul and pitiless;
And when I saw that face, so young and fair,
I thought such anguish was the worst to bear.
"Life's Undercurrent." by Alfred Castner King

In news:

Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in developing countries.
Win-Win Week raises cancer awareness in Oklahoma and rallies high schools and high school sports programs to raise money to support cancer research and treatment.
(CNN) — Marijuana may double the risk of testicular cancer among young men, particularly tumors that are more severe, according to a new study published in the American Cancer Society's journal, Cancer.
US — Marijuana may double the risk of testicular cancer among young men, particularly tumors that are more severe, according to a new study published in the American Cancer Society's journal, Cancer.
Male fetuses of mothers exposed to radiation during early pregnancy may have a higher chance of developing testicular cancer, according to a new study from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
"Skin cancer is the number one diagnosis of all cancers," said Terry Cook, nurse manager for the Cancer Care Center at Warren General Hospital.
2 cancer killer in men, after lung cancer.
Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers.
Roasted root vegetable soup from the American Cancer Society's 'What to Eat During Cancer Treatment.'.
Men who took 400 international units of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared with men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial, the NIH stated.
In 1994 a Finnish study that was designed to see if vitamin E would lower the risk of lung cancer in smokers found, incidentally, about a 25 percent reduction in prostate cancer among those who took the vitamin .
The results of an international study appearing this week in the journal The Lancet show that Merck's cervical cancer vaccine Gardasil also protects women against vulval and vaginal cancers.
I'm sure it's something cancer survivors (or whose children have survived cancer) will tell you twists their stomachs in knots.
Age-specific worldwide trends in cancer mortality were reviewed, with emphasis on cancer sites where increases have been reported in the USA.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, has classified diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans based on evidence that exposure is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer.
***

In science:

The lines are the 1σ and 2σ fits to the data of Zwaan, et.al.(1995), and the circles are recent observations of LSB galaxies in the Pegasus and Cancer groups from O’Neil, Bothun, & Schombert (1999).
Star Formation and Tidal Encounters with the Low Surface Brightness Galaxy UGC 12695 and Companions
MPHS is a Wellcome Trust research fellow and CW is supported by the Danish Cancer Society.
Sampling properties of random graphs: the degree distribution
They have been found to be an excellent candidate as a concise fingerprint of internet-like graphs and graphs for the cancer cells .
Random matrix analysis of network Laplacians
A.W. thanks H.M. and C.W. for their hospitality during a research stay at the Department of Physics at the Xiamen University. A.W. was supported by a scholarship from the International PhD program of the German Cancer Research Center.
Modelling diffusional transport in the interphase cell nucleus
Cigarette smoking and cancers of the urinary tract: geographic variations in the United States.
A new graphical tool of outliers detection in regression models based on recursive estimation
Wil lman, who is giving him yet another lesson – the grace, courage, wil l power, and inner peace while in the turmoil of life – throughout the treatment of her cancer.
Azumaya-type noncommutative spaces and morphisms therefrom: Polchinski's D-branes in string theory from Grothendieck's viewpoint
Prostate brachytherapy involves implanting radioactive seeds (I125 for instance) permanently in the gland for the treatment of localized prostate cancers e.g. cT1c-T2a N0 M0 with good prognostic factors.
MRI/TRUS data fusion for prostate brachytherapy. Preliminary results
A.V. D'Amico, R. Cormack, C.M. Tempany, S. Kumar, G. Topulos, H.M. Kooy, and C.N. Coleman. Real-time magnetic resonance image guided interstitial brachytherapy in the treatment of select patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. In Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol.
MRI/TRUS data fusion for prostate brachytherapy. Preliminary results
We co-integrated clinical microarray gene expression data for cancer patients with known human PPI due to Rual et al. (2005).
Graph Kernels
The CPU runtimes of our CG, fixed-point, and Sylvester equation approaches to graph kernel computation on the cancer patients modeled as graphs is contrasted with that of the direct approach in Table 3.
Graph Kernels
Cross-platform analysis of cancer microarray data improves gene expression based classification of phenotypes.
Graph Kernels
Cancer chemotherapy trials are carried out among ma jor cancer centers as well as community hospitals.
Multi-center clinical trials: Randomization and ancillary statistics
Gray, R. J. (1994). A Bayesian analysis of institutional effects in a multicenter cancer clinical trial.
Multi-center clinical trials: Randomization and ancillary statistics
Matsuyama, Y., Sakamoto, J. and Ohashi, Y. (1998). A Bayesian hierarchical survival model for the institutional effects in a multi-centre cancer clinical trial.
Multi-center clinical trials: Randomization and ancillary statistics
Proportional hazards models with random effects to examine centre effects in multicentre cancer clinical trials.
Multi-center clinical trials: Randomization and ancillary statistics
***