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calculus

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n calculus the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions
    • n calculus a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body "renal calculi can be very painful"
    • n calculus an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Calculus (Math) A method of computation; any process of reasoning by the use of symbols; any branch of mathematics that may involve calculation.
    • Calculus (Med) Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but most frequent in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as, biliary calculi; urinary calculi, etc.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n calculus A small stone; a pebble.
    • n calculus In pathology, a general term for inorganic concretions of various kinds formed in various parts of the body. Those concretions formed in the gall-bladder are called biliary calculi, or gall-stones; those formed by a morbid deposition from the urine in the kidneys or bladder are called renal, cystic, or urinary calculi; those formed in the substance of the lungs are called pulmonary calculi; and those formed in the salivary glands or their ducts are called salivary calculi. There are also gouty concretions called arthritic calculi, and others called pancreatic calculi, lacrymal calculi, spermatic calculi, etc.
    • n calculus In mathematics, any highly systematic method of treating a large variety of problems by the use of some peculiar system of algebraic notation. By the calculus, without qualification, is generally understood the differential calculus, invented by Leibnitz (although Newton's method of fiuxions comes virtually to the same thing). In this method quantities are conceived as varying continuously, and when equations exist involving several quantities, these quantities will, in consequence of these equations, vary together, so that there will be equations between their rates of change, the differential or infinitely small increment of a variable being denoted by the letter d written before the symbol denoting the variable. The differential calculus treats of the values of ratios of these differentials, and of the fundamental formulas into which these ratios enter. The integral calculus treats of integration, or the summation of an infinite series of differentials; it is largely an inverted statement of a part of the doctrine of the differential calculus, but it also introduces imaginary quantities and leads up to the theory of functions.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Calculus kal′kū-lus a stone-like concretion which forms in certain parts of the body: one of the higher branches of mathematics
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L, calculus,. See Calculate, and Calcule
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L.—calx.

Usage

In literature:

The Calculus for Engineers.
"Seasoning of Wood" by Joseph B. Wagner
The Minister, I believe, has written learnedly on the Differential Calculus.
"Masterpieces of Mystery In Four Volumes" by Various
We are bound to apply our 'felicific calculus' with absolute impartiality.
"The English Utilitarians, Volume I." by Leslie Stephen
See calculus renis, Class I.
"Zoonomia, Vol. II" by Erasmus Darwin
In his work he gave the first sketch of an infinitesimal calculus and in his own way performed an integration.
"Progress and History" by Various
Secretion accumulates in the crypts, and a calculus may form from the deposit of lime salts.
"Manual of Surgery Volume Second: Extremities--Head--Neck. Sixth Edition." by Alexander Miles
If we had lectured each other alternately on the Integral Calculus, Blanquette would have given us her rapt and happy attention.
"The Belovéd Vagabond" by William J. Locke
The nature of white light, the true doctrine of colour, and the differential calculus!
"Pioneers of Science" by Oliver Lodge
I cut out half her clothes for her; her own ideas were almost entirely limited to differential calculus.
"Miss Cayley's Adventures" by Grant Allen
Elementary Textbook on the Calculus.
"Complete Classified Price List of School and College Textbooks" by Anonymous
The new idea involved a calculus of the imaginary roots of unity.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 7" by Various
Etl was having his troubles with calculus.
"Stamped Caution" by Raymond Zinke Gallun
Their music is the integral calculus of the spheres.
"Shadows of Flames" by Amelie Rives
But I was sure in trigonometry and calculus, which I might have dodged and didn't.
"The Reclaimers" by Margaret Hill McCarter
He may be regarded as the originator of the integral calculus.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 Part 3" by Various
In mathematics, for example, it did not include the calculus, or even conic sections.
"The Government of England (Vol. I)" by A. Lawrence Lowell
With the marquis de l'Hopital he spent four months studying higher geometry and the resources of the new calculus.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 6" by Various
Yet it was Newton who discovered the infinitesimal calculus and the laws of universal gravitation.
"English Pharisees and French Crocodiles" by Max O'Rell
Darwinism is Malthusianism on the large scale: it is the application of the calculus of population to the wide facts of universal life.
"Charles Darwin" by Grant Allen
In the last century Maria Agnesi gave us a treatise on the differential and integral calculus.
"Woman in Science" by John Augustine Zahm
***

In poetry:

For, as their nurses dandle them
They crow binomial theorem,
With views (it seems absurd to us)
On differential calculus.
"My Dream" by William Schwenck Gilbert
Remember, truth draws upward. This to us
Of steady happiness should be a cause
Beyond the differential calculus
Or Kant’s dull dogmas and mechanic laws.
"Faith in God" by Henry Kendall
Then jet the blue tent topple, stars rain down,
and god or void appall us till we drown
in our own tears: today we start
to pay the piper with each breath, yet love
knows not of death nor calculus above
the simple sum of heart plus heart.
"Love Is A Parallax" by Sylvia Plath

In news:

Noncontrast helical CT of renal calculus : An update.
How many, how much Like most aspects of public school administration, determining an exact count of Sequim students enrolled in Running Start requires a complex calculus.
We look at composition of (possibly nonterminating) high-level programs over situation calculus action theories.
We describe the framework and provide an instantiation using context-free grammars and a lambda-calculus semantic representation.
Isaac Newton (1642-1721) invented or coinvented calculus, discovered gravity and organized physics around mathematical laws.
A case of a giant submandibular gland calculus perforating the floor of the mouth.
3.541 (AP calculus, statistics, English 100).
For a restaurant whose dining room is considered sacred ground by the city's elite, the calculus becomes much more complex.
How he is altering Republican primary calculus.
The word pre-calculus is frightening, itself.
Behavioral Changes in Tax Calculus.
Calculus II, I think it was.
A Couponer is always doing a little calculus in their head, performing a convenience versus cost-saving analysis.
In one room, seniors from an Advanced Placement calculus class used iPads to map derivative functions - anyone remember how to solve f(x) = (x+3)7.
"It would change the political calculus in California," he said.
***

In science:

In other words, you just assume the expansion you wish, and then you read the potential after doing some calculus, “solving” the Einstein equations from “left to right”.
Exact Inflationary Solutions from a Superpotential
On the relation between kappa calculus and probabilistic reasoning.
Conditional Plausibility Measures and Bayesian Networks
Another interesting point concerns the problem of the existence of a limit (∆t → 0) stochastic process and on the development of a new stochastic calculus associated to this process.
A multifractal random walk
Hilfer, Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics.
On Fractional Diffusion and its Relation with Continuous Time Random Walks
It is suggested that generations are linked to the need of calculating curvature of space via a deformed or discrete calculus.
It is the ambiguity. (But only three generations)
For this warm-up application, we will simply list the results of Jian Kong, where residues on the flag manifold are computed, resulting in particular in some new methods for computing Schubert calculus on the Grassmannian G(m, n).
Some applications of localization to enumerative problems
It can be shown that this suffices to compute Schubert calculus, and it seems that an analysis of the complexity of this computation ought to be done.
Some applications of localization to enumerative problems
In doing so it is necessary to apply the Ito calculus as follows.
Exactly solvable models of quantum mechanics including fluctuations in the framework of representation of the wave function by random process
Such a stochastic calculus for q–deformed operators was considered by the author [Sn1].
Gaussian Random Matrix Models for q-deformed Gaussian Random Variables
Comets and Neveu [CN], making use of martingale methods and stochastic calculus.
Fluctuations of the free energy in the REM and the p-spin SK models
Stochastic Calculus: The High Temperature Case.
Fluctuations of the free energy in the REM and the p-spin SK models
Neumann A calculus for plumbing applied to the topology of complex surface singularities and degenerating complex curves.
Rational polynomials of simple type
In Section 3, we show some facts about the differential calculus on Lie algebroids in the presence of a 1-cocycle.
Generalized Lie bialgebroids and Jacobi structures
If γ and σ meet with finite multiplicity in a point p, then it follows from Elementary Calculus that p is isolated in the set of common points.
Sextactic points on a simple closed curve
In this talk I review some recent results concerning multi-instanton calculus in supersymmetric field theories.
Multi-Instanton Calculus in Supersymmetric Theories
***