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black smoker


  • Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • black smoker a vent at the bottom of the ocean, usually at a mid-ocean ridge, through which large quantities of water carrying minerals flow, producing a jet of fluid with the appearance of black smoke. The ocean water in crevices below the vent is heated to temperatures near 400° C, and dissolves quantities of metal salts, such as of copper, zinc, gold, and manganese. When the saturated mineral solutions exit the vent, cooling by contact with the ocean causes the metals to precipitate, mainly as sulfide or sulfate salts. Unusual forms of life such as tube worms have been found to live in the areas near black smokers. Additional information is available from The Natural History Museum of London and The American Museum of Natural History Expeditions.
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In literature:

He was black-bearded and an opium-smoker, and she hated to think of Everard as in any sense allied with him.
"The Lamp in the Desert" by Ethel M. Dell
The Rock Pebble, or Smoker, of the country dweller, formally called the Black-tailed Parrot, is a fine bird.
"An Australian Bird Book" by John Albert Leach

In news:

Classic is for adult cigar smokers interested in a classic Black & Mild pipe tobacco taste, while Sweets is a more traditional cigarillo taste made from primarily air-cured tobaccos.
Christmas music, decorated trees and Black Friday signal the start of the holidays for a lot of people, but many cigar smokers are getting in the spirit for a different reason this week: the holiday Arturo Fuente Añejo release.
A black smoker hydrothermal vent at the Endeavor Ridge rift valley.
A type of hydrothermal vent called a "Black Smoker" sends a cloud of hot, mineral-filled water into the ocean.
But elsewhere, "black smokers" – towering, two-story-tall vents spewing mineral-rich, superheated water into the inky darkness around them – are oases of life for organisms ranging from bacteria to crabs and giant tube worms.

In science:

Probably the most extreme case is the discovery of so-called black smokers or chimneys on the ocean floor.
Route to Room-Temperature Superconductivity from a Practical Point of View