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U

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj u (chiefly British) of or appropriate to the upper classes especially in language use
    • n U the 21st letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n u the 21st letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n U a heavy toxic silvery-white radioactive metallic element; occurs in many isotopes; used for nuclear fuels and nuclear weapons
    • n U a base containing nitrogen that is found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with adenine
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The largest bill U.S. bill made is for $100,000
    • U ū the twenty-first letter of the English alphabet, is a cursive form of the letter V, with which it was formerly used interchangeably, both letters being then used both as vowels and consonants. U and V are now, however, differentiated, U being used only as a vowel or semivowel, and V only as a consonant. The true primary vowel sound of U, in Anglo-Saxon, was the sound which it still retains in most of the languages of Europe, that of long oo, as in tool, and short oo, as in wood, answering to the French ou in tour. Etymologically U is most closely related to o yvowel), w, and v; as in two, duet, dyad, twice; top, tuft; sop, sup; auspice, aviary. See V, also O and Y.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The first cheerleaders in the U.S. were men
    • u An abbreviation [l. c] in a ship's log-book, of ugly threatening weather; [l. c] of uncle; of Unionist.
    • n u An abbreviation of United Brethren; of United Brethren in Christ.
    • n u An abbreviation of University College; of Upper Canada; of the Latin urbis conditæ, from the founding of the city, moaning from the first year of Rome.
    • u An abbreviation of underproof, as applied to alcoholic liquors.
    • n u An abbreviation of Uncle Sam
    • n u of United Service
    • n u [lowercase or cap.] of the Latin ut supra, as above.
    • u The twenty-first character and fifth vowel-sign in the English alphabet. The Phenician alphabet, from which ours comes ultimately (see under A), had no such sign, but ended with T. A sign for the u-sound (that is, for oo, or ö, as it is represented in the respellings of this dictionary) was added by the Greeks when they adapted the Phenician signs to their own use, and was written indifferently V or Y; but the latter finally established itself as the accepted form in Greek usage, while the former became customary in the derived Italian alphabets; so that, considerably later, the Romans were able to import Y as a separate and foreign character, to represent the foreign Greek sound ü (= French u, German ü or ue), into which the Greek ö had meanwhile become to a great extent altered in pronunciation. The V was also commonly written with its angle rounded, as U; and V and U were for a long time merely different forms of the same sign (like I and J): it is only recently that they have come to be always distinctly held apart, and have different values given them. As W also is a doubled U or V, it appears that our four letters U, V, W, and Y all come from a single sign added by the Greeks at the end of the Phenician system. The sound originally and properly represented by the character, and still belonging to it in most languages outside of English, is the oo or o sound, as in mood, move, rule, and the like, the closest of the labial vowels, or rounded vowels, as they are often called (see under O); but this value the letter has in English only in exceptional cases. What we call “long u,” namely, is this same sound with the semivowel y prefixed, as yoo (yo); and what we call “short u” is the more open of the two shades of neutral vowel-sound. The digraphs ue, eu, and ew also have, as long, the yo-value in the same manner and degree. The y-element in the sound, namely, is not always alike full and undeniable, but varies somewhat, according to the difficulty of slipping it in after a preceding consonant. After a guttural (k, q) or a labial (p, b, m, f, v), as when initial, the utterance is completely yö; but after the tongue-tip letters (t, d, n, th, s, z, l, r) the insertion of y involves a more difficult combination of movements of the tongue, and the element is apt to be slighted, being reduced rather to a bit of ł; and in the practice of many speakers, and in certain localities, it is even omitted altogether, so that the yö becomes simple ö, new being pronounced noo, lurid loorid, and so on. The difficulty in the way of inserting the y, however, is removed if the preceding syllable has the accent; and hence even those who pronounce penö'rious say pen'ū ry, and so in all other like cases. This omission of the y-element is not approved, but is stigmatized as provincial or vulgar, although practised by many educated and careful speakers, and probably becoming more prevalent. It is more generally condoned, and even accepted, after l than after t, d, n, etc., and some standard authorities in England itself now prononnce and teach lö instead of lū ; in this dictionary the u is so marked if it occurs after l preceded by another consonant, as in fluid (flo-id). After r, the difficulty of adding the y-sound before a vowel is greater than after any other tongue-tip consonant; hence in this situation the pronunciation of “long u” as ö is almost universally accepted and practised. Further, after t, d, s, z, “long u” becomes o when the y-element is as it were absorbed into them, converting them (see the different letters) into ch, j, sh, and zh; nor is the y-element heard when ū follows any of these sounds having an independent origin, as in jury, etc. The real short u-sound, or that corresponding to ö as long, is in a limited number of words also represented by u, as in bull, put, etc.; also by double o, as in look, foot, etc. What we call “short u” is in the great majority of cases written with u, but also with o, as in son, with oo, as in blood, and with ou, as in young, and in the slighted pronunciation of unaccented syllables with almost any vowel. Cases like bury and busy and buy are anomalous and isolated. A u is always written after q, and this u (save in the exceptional cases in which it is silent) has a consonantal value, being pronounced as the semivowel w; and it is so treated sometimes also after other consonants, especially s, as in suave, persuade, anguish. U is silent in many words after g, having only (as in French) the office of preserving the hard sound of the g; thus, guide, plague. Like i and y, u is never doubled.
    • u As a symbol: The chemical symbol of uranium.
    • u In quaternions, an operational sign which, prefixed to the symbol of a quaternion, denotes the versor of that quaternion.
    • u In the theory of heat, a symbol used to denote the energy, or the sum of the increment of heat and the heat consumed.
    • u [lowercase] In the calculus, the symbol of a function.
    • u [lowercase] In hydrodynamics, used with v and w to denote the rectangular components of the velocity.
    • n u An abbreviation of Italian una corda, on one string.
    • n u An abbreviation of United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Ireland).
    • n u An abbreviation of United Presbyterian.
    • n u An abbreviation of United States (of America).
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Each year 96 billion pounds of food is wasted in the U.S
    • U the twenty-first letter and the fifth vowel in our alphabet—evolving amongst the Greeks as V, with the value of u. From V, the lapidary and capital form, the uncial and cursive forms U and u were developed, gradually V becoming appropriated as the symbol for the consonant, and the medial form u as the symbol for the vowel.
    • ***

Quotations

  • Herodotus
    Herodotus
    “Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds. [The Motto Of The U.S. Postal Service]”
  • Woody Allen
    Woody%20Allen
    “I was thrown out of N.Y.U. my freshman year for cheating on my metaphysics final. You know, I looked within the soul of the boy sitting next to me.”
  • R. W. ''Tiny'' Rowland
    R. W. ''Tiny'' Rowland
    “Europe and the U.K. are yesterday's world. Tomorrow is in the United States.”
  • Ronald Reagan
    Ronald%20Reagan
    “Of the four wars in my lifetime, none came about because the U.S. was too strong.”
  • Graham Greene
    Graham%20Greene
    “If I had to choose between life in the Soviet Union and life in the U. S. A., I would certainly choose the Soviet Union.”
  • James Dye
    James Dye
    “If u have money buy gold. It is going to double in value.”

Idioms

U-turn - If a government changes its position radically on an issue, especially when they have promised not to do so, this is a U-turn.
***

Usage

In literature:

U.S. Navy test, 1931.
"The First Airplane Diesel Engine: Packard Model DR-980 of 1928" by Robert B. Meyer
Spacemen aren't required to join the U.F.W.
"The Cartels Jungle" by Irving E. Cox, Jr.
Saulsbury's resolution in the U. S.
"A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital" by John Beauchamp Jones
You-u didn't specify the limits o-of a-accuracy tha-at you-u wanted.
"Where I Wasn't Going" by Walt Richmond
Courtesy of U.S. Bureau of Lighthouses.
"The Boy With the U. S. Life-Savers" by Francis Rolt-Wheeler
It is dated February 21, 1917, prior to the U.S. declaration of war, but could not be published before July.
"The Forerunners" by Romain Rolland
Upon graduation he had been assigned to the 2d U. S., and sent to get his first lessons in actual war fighting the Florida Indians.
"The Struggle for Missouri" by John McElroy
He heard that a party of U. S. soldiers were building a fort there.
"The Story of Sitka" by C. L. Andrews
I could use it for separating U-235 from U-238 just as easily.
"A Feast of Demons" by William Morrison
Let us resolve u into 1/2(u + v) in one direction, say to the right, and 1/2(u - v) to the left.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 8" by Various
And now I am a commander on a U-boat!
"The Adventures of the U-202" by E. Spiegel
Blast those dirty U-boat blighters!
"Dave Dawson at Casablanca" by Robert Sydney Bowen
In short, once again they were meeting their old friend Colonel Welsh, Chief of Combined U.S. Intelligence.
"Dave Dawson on Guadalcanal" by Robert Sydney Bowen
U.S. Department of Army.
"Area Handbook for Bulgaria" by Eugene K. Keefe, Violeta D. Baluyut, William Giloane, Anne K. Long, James M. Moore, and Neda A. Walpole
As the organ of the C. Y. F. R. U. Dr.
"The Story of Chautauqua" by Jesse Lyman Hurlbut
Y y u r y y u b i c u r y y for me.
"The Handbook of Conundrums" by Edith B. Ordway
Regarding the German losses in U-boats, practically no definite information is available.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume VII (of VIII)" by Various
The trade name here in the U.S. is Pergonal, though that's not what this is.
"Life Blood" by Thomas Hoover
We show you at almost the same position as a U.S. Navy ship of some kind.
"Project Cyclops" by Thomas Hoover
There's not a damned thing the U.S. could do about it.
"Project Daedalus" by Thomas Hoover
***

In poetry:

Ik min u in den zang,
die in zijn klare kracht
betoomt de zware pracht
van Hartstochts hoog verlang.
"Het Smeulend Vuur" by Carel Scharten
Ik min u, smeulend vuur,
ik min uw donker branden,
dat achter bleeke wanden
waakt en wacht op zijn uur!
"Het Smeulend Vuur" by Carel Scharten
Odnoj mechty i mudrym malo:
Mne skazyval arheolog,
CHto u Platona . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
"Platonizm" by Nikolay Mikhailovich Yazykov
Ik min u in den avond,
die sterft in lang verbloeden,
met diepe en diep're gloeden
zijn duistren moorder lavend.
"Het Smeulend Vuur" by Carel Scharten
Wat is u of mij een naam,
Werelds prijs of werelds blaam,
Als de ziel de dingen weet en mint
Dieper dan hun naam, mijn kind?
"Namen" by Pieter Cornelis Boutens
En ik zal niet verwonderd zijn;
in deze liefde zal de dood
alleen een slapen, slapen gerust
een wachten op u, een wachten zijn.
"O, Als Ik Dood Zal Zijn" by Jan Hendrik Leopold

In news:

U.K.-based punk group Sharks will release their Rise Records debut, No Gods, on March 20th.
Blog entry Social Media U. Monday, September 10, 2012.
U.S DOT providing 12 million in Quick Release Emergency Relief Funds for Hurricane Sandy Damage in New Jersey and Connecticut.
Atria Inks Co-Pub Deal with U.K.'s Short Books.
Not a u local member.
If u have ever been is south west Louisiana u may have seen thease trucks up and down the road.this is a replica of a local co.
U.S military might is failing in a world without major enemies.
Samsung Galaxy S Aviator (U.
Timing wrong for U.S.-Iran relations.
FAIRBANKS — R u talkn 2 me.
(CBS News) An anti-Islamic film that triggered protest in the Middle East has also sparked confusion and debate in the U.S. Just who is Sam Bacile .
Joe Pace in the U District with one of his talking robots.
North Korea has ballistic missile capable of hitting U.S. CIA Director Tenet testified Wednesday before the Senate Armed Services Committee.
T he deadline for applications to be the next head of the Bank of England, the U.K.'s top monetary authority, closed Monday with one of the leading contenders announcing he had decided not to pursue the position.
LONDON (AP) — The deadline for applications to be the next head of the Bank of England, the U.K.'s top monetary authority, has closed close with one of the leading contenders deciding not to pursue the position.
***

In science:

Since the embedding X ≃ (X + U )/U ⊂ Y ′′/U has cokernel Z ′, there exists a submodule U ′ of Y containing U with (X + U ) ∩ U ′ = U and (X + U ) + U ′ = Y ′′ .
Infinite dimensional representations of canonical algebras
The representation theory of SL2 implies that b♭/uℓ = [b♭/uℓ, e] ⊕ (z(f ) ∩ b♭ + uℓ )/uℓ, i.e. (sφ + uℓ )/uℓ is a transversal slice to the B♭ /Uℓ -orbit of e in b♭/uℓ near e.
Induced and simple modules of double affine Hecke algebras
The map ( ˆu, ˆΨ, ˆΦ) solves ∂s ˆu + X ˆΦ ( ˆu) + Jt ( ˆu)(∂t ˆu + X ˆΨ ( ˆu)) = 0 ∂s ˆΨ − ∂t ˆΦ + [ ˆΦ, ˆΨ] + µ( ˆu) = 0 ( ˆu, ˆΨ, ˆΦ)(s + 2, t) = [(R0 ) ◦ (R1 ) ˆu, ( ˙S0 ) ◦ ( ˙S1 ) ˆΨ, ( ˙S0 ) ◦ ( ˙S1 ) ˆΦ)(s, t).
The Arnold-Givental conjecture and moment Floer homology
U ) ≤ πn(U+1) ; πn(U ) ≤ m(U+1 ), m(U ) ≤ πnψ (U+4) ; πnψ (U ) ≤ m(U+4 ), here m is the Lebesgue measure on C.
Random complex zeroes, II. Perturbed lattice
A pro jection P in a C ∗ -algebra A is said to be infinite if there exists U ∈ A such that U ∗U = P and U U ∗ < P where U U ∗ < P means U U ∗ ≤ P and U U ∗ 6= P .
C^*-algebras generated by scaling elements
To this end, we differentiate the spectral decomposition ˆH = ˆU ˆΛ ˆU ∗, and further exploit: d (cid:16) ˆU ∗ ˆU (cid:17) = d ˆU ∗ ˆU + ˆU ∗d ˆU = 0.
Introduction to the Random Matrix Theory: Gaussian Unitary Ensemble and Beyond
The action of U(g) on U ∗ is defined to be (xf )(u) = f (γ (x)u), for f ∈ U ∗, u ∈ U, and x ∈ U(g).
Quantum conjugacy classes of simple matrix groups
If 1 ≤ |U | ≤ d, then every vertex in U has at least d − (|U | − 1) neighbors outside U and therefore e(U, V (G) − U ) ≥ |U |(cid:0)d − |U | + 1(cid:1) ≥ d.
Pseudo-random graphs
U, U ) −→ hom(U, U )ohom(U, U ) endows hom(U, U ) with a coproduct.
Quadratic categories, Koszul resolutions and operads
U oI• )oU ! which is isomorphic to U o(U ! oI• ) Since U is an ob ject of C ′, U oU ! is isomorphic to U • (U ! oI• ) = U • U ∗ .
Quadratic categories, Koszul resolutions and operads
In the proof of theorem 5, we can define on P ′ the following tensor structure: Let (U, T ), and (U ′, T ′) be two elements of P ′, (U, T )o(U ′, T ′) = (U ⊗U ′, t23 (U ⊗ T ′ + T ⊗ U ′ )).
Quadratic categories, Koszul resolutions and operads
Since H ≥ U (z ) and U (y) ≥ 0, the event whose probability is J (a, h) requires the existence of random times mH < y < z < S (0) with U (mH ) ≥ h, U (y) < (h + 1)1−ε =: u, U (z ) > h − (h + 1)1−ε =: v and U (S (0)) = 0, while 0 < U (s) < h + 1 for all s < S (0).
Valleys and the maximum local time for random walk in random environment
If U, U ′ ∈ Ob RV[n, ·], a morphism h : U → U ′ is a definable map, such that U ′′ = {(f (u), f ′ (h(u))) : u ∈ U } has finite-to-one first pro jection to RVn .
Integration in valued fields
Let γ ′ : U → Γ be a definable function such that if u ∈ U and u′ ∈ B (u, γ ′ (u)) then u′ ∈ U and γ ′ (u′ ) = γ ′ (u).
Integration in valued fields
Applying the measure preserving bijection (u, u′, z ) 7→ (u − u′, u′, z ′ ) we see that the [{(u, u′, z ) : u ∈ U, u′ ∈ B (u, γ ′ (u)), (u′, z ) ∈ F }] = 1 [{(u′, z ) : (u′, z ) ∈ F ] so the equality is clear.
Integration in valued fields
***