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Passeres

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n Passeres two names for the suborder of typical songbirds
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • prop. n. pl Passeres (Zoöl) An order, or suborder, of birds, including more that half of all the known species. It embraces all singing birds (Oscines), together with many other small perching birds.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • passeres An order of the class Aves, typified by the genus Passer, comprehending more than half of all birds. It has about the taxonomic or classificatory value of groups called families in departments of zoology other than ornithology. It corresponds inexactly to Insessores in some of the uses of this word, and exactly to the Cuvierian Passerinæ as emended by Blyth; also to the Ægithognathæ of Huxley. It consists of the Oscines (Müller) and Clamatores of Cabanis. With some exceptions, these birds (numbering upward of 5,000 species) have the following characters. They are anomalogonatous, having no ambiens muscle nor accessory femorocaudal. The femorocaudal and semitendinosus muscles are present, as is usually also the accessory semitendinosus. The flexor longus hallucis, the muscle which bends the hind toe, is separated from the flexor longus digitorum, which bends the other toes collectively; and the hind toe is inserted low down, or is perfectly incumbent. The result of this is that the feet are perfectly fitted for grasping slender supports, and the birds are thus typically insessorial. Furthermore, the toes are always 4, 3 in front and 1 behind (except in Cholornis); none are versatile from their normal position, and the ratio of their phalanges is always 2, 3,4, 5, counting from the first to the fourth digit. As to the means of flight, of which no Passeres are deprived, the sternum has with few exceptions a particular conformation, being notched on each side behind, manubriated, and provided with prominent costal processes; the tensor patagii brevis has a special mode of insertion; the primaries are either 10 or 9 in number, the secondaries are more than 6, and the greater coverts are not more than half as long as the secondaries. The tail has 12 rectrices (with few exceptions). The palate is ægithognathous; the covering of the bill is hard, with a cere or other soft membrane, and the nostrils do not openly communicate; the oil-gland is nude; the cæca are 2 in number; and the carotid is single and sinistral. Passeres are altricial and psilopædic, the young being born helpless and naked. In most birds of this order the lower larynx, or syrinx, is highly developed as a musical organ, and according to this character Passeres are divisible into 2 primary groups—Oscines or Acromyodi, and Clamatores or Mesomyodi. The division of Passeres, however, has severely exercised alike the erudition and the ingenuity of the systematists, and no proposed method is fully accepted. The prime division by Garrod and Forbes, into Eleutherodactyli and Desmodactyli, is superfluous, since those alleged Passeres which are desmodactylous are not Passeres. Elimination of these obtrusive terms leaves the prime division as before, into Acromyodi and Mesomyodi. In 1874 Wallace divided Passeres upon external characters into 4 series: turdoid, with 21 families: tanagroid, with 10 families; sturnoid, with 4 families; formicarioid, with 10 families: 45 in all—an arrangement requiring some modification upon anatomical grounds. The mesomyodian Passeres are either heteromerous, as the families Cotingidæ and Pipridæ, or they are homœomerous. The latter are either haploöphonous, as the Tyrannidæ, Pittidæ, Philepittidæ, and Xenicidæ, or they are tracheophonous, as the Furnariidæ, Pteroptochidæ, Dendrocolaptidæ, and Formicariidæ. With few exceptions, mesomyodian Passeres are American, and nearly all of these (all but a few Tyrannidæ) are Central and South American. As to the acromyodian Passeres, they are either abnormal or normal. The abnormal Passeres are only two Australian families, Menuridæ and Atrichiidæ, together called Pseudoscines. The rest are Oscines proper, some 4,700 species in all, so closely related that they scarcely represent a group of higher rank than the average “family” recognized by ornithologists. They are three of Wallace's four series (turdoid, tanagroid, and sturnoid), and are separated by Sundevall into Cichlomorphæ, Conirostres, Coliomorphæ, Certhiomorphæ, Cinnyrimorphæ, and Chelidonomorphæ. Sclater has six similar divisions, though in different order and under other names: Dcntirostres, Latirostres, Curvirostres, Tenuirostres, Conirostres, and Cultrirostres. These groups may be thus explained or illustrated: Cichlomorphæ or Dentirostres, thrushes, warblers, flycatchers, shrikes, etc.; Coliomorphæ or Cultrirostres, crows, jays, tits, etc.; Conirostres, finches, buntings, sparrows, tanagers, etc.; Cinnyrimorphæ or Tenuirostres, honey-suckers; Certhiomorphæ or Curvirostres, creepers; Chelidonomorphæ or Latirostres, swallows. All these birds agree in being laminiplantar; and among them or near them must be found or made a place for the larks, Alaudidæ, which are scutelliplantar, and which, when not placed with Conirostres, form a seventh superfamily known as Corydomorphæ.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n.pl Passeres pas′e-rez the name given by Cuvier to the order of birds otherwise called Insessores, comprising more than half of all the birds
    • ***

Quotations

  • H.G. Wells
    H.G.%20Wells
    “The science hangs like a gathering fog in a valley, a fog which begins nowhere and goes nowhere, an incidental, unmeaning inconvenience to passers-by.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. L. passer, a sparrow
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. passer, a sparrow.

Usage

In literature:

It was no pleasure to him, however, this stopping of passers-by.
"Sister Carrie" by Theodore Dreiser
Now and anon they scanned passers-by for a chance acquaintance.
"The Crisis, Complete" by Winston Churchill
Inquisitiveness has little place in the region of the city, and they gained the opposite footpath unnoticed by the casual passer-by.
"The Masquerader" by Katherine Cecil Thurston
The hedge shelters us, and besides this valley is now deserted, and there are no passers by.
"Uarda, Complete A Romance Of Ancient Egypt" by Georg Ebers
There I sat on some steps and offered them for sale to the passers-by; but nobody wanted them.
"Complete Short Works" by Georg Ebers
One passer-by repeated it to another, and friend shouted to friend across the street.
"The Story Of My Life From Childhood To Manhood The Autobiography Of Georg Ebers, Complete" by Georg Ebers
With a courteous little gesture he intercepted the passer-by.
"The Evil Shepherd" by E. Phillips Oppenheim
Quelques annees passerent encore, quand j'appris, un beau jour, qu'Arsay etait entre au Parlement.
"Histoires grises" by E. Edouard Tavernier
Half way he saw the tall, graceful figure of a young girl, whose long veil of soft silky gauze hid her face from passers-by.
"Dyke Darrel the Railroad Detective" by Frank Pinkerton
And the curiosity of the passers-by was more marked than ever; two or three of them had stopped to watch us.
"Kent Knowles: Quahaug" by Joseph C. Lincoln
Should he make a noise and attract the attention of the passer-by?
"The Battle Of The Strong, Complete A Romance of Two Kingdoms" by Gilbert Parker
This is an object in which every passer-by, even the most indifferent, finds an interest.
"Old Mission Stories of California" by Charles Franklin Carter
He must have been hanging about near the door of the Cafe Royal when she passed and watching the passers-by.
"December Love" by Robert Hichens
At last he turned homewards, dragging his feet along, busying himself with the passers-by, with the vehicles, and the shops.
"Therese Raquin" by Emile Zola
You are hidden as a star behind the hills, and I am a passer-by upon the road.
"The Gardener" by Rabindranath Tagore
And she did not remember having ever seen houses so white, trees so green, and passers-by so happy.
"The Three Cities Trilogy, Complete Lourdes, Rome and Paris" by Emile Zola
Steadfastly she watched the passers-by.
"The Lighted Way" by E. Phillips Oppenheim
The very passers-by are becoming sheep-eyed and are looking at us askance.
"Indiscreet Letters From Peking"
The sun shrivels her body; the feet of the passers-by crush it.
"Social Life in the Insect World" by J. H. Fabre
In a village like Gormanville any passer is of interest to the spectator, and a man running is of thrilling moment.
"A Pair of Patient Lovers" by William Dean Howells
***

In poetry:

The ladye she stood at her lattice high,
Wi' her doggie at her feet;
Thorough the lattice she can spy
The passers in the street,
"The Lang Coortin'" by Lewis Carroll
"I planned her a nest in a leafless tree,
But the passers eyed and twitted me,
And said: 'How reckless a bird is he,
Cheerily mating!'
"Postponement" by Thomas Hardy
The night drew on with thick'ning gloom,--
He hailed each passer by,
For help to save, but nought they gave,--
Then he sat down to cry.
"The Dean's Brother" by John Hartley
The mourners go about the street,
While children tell their tale of woe
To every passer-by they meet,
In faltering accents, faint and low.
"On The Death Of Miss Mary Hayes" by David John Scott
I ask no monument, proud and high,
To arrest the gaze of the passers-by;
All that my yearning spirit craves,
Is bury me not in a land of slaves.
"Bury Me In A Free Land" by Frances Ellen Watkins
The dusty highway, like a cloud of dawn,
Trails o'er the hillside, and the passer-by,
A tired ghost in misty shroud, toils on
His journey to the sky.
"August" by James Whitcomb Riley

In news:

Trenton man shot, driven to hospital by passer-by .
Rodgers had a passer rating of 132.2 with the third-highest completion percentage in his career at 81.1.
After maturing as a passer, Manziel developed into Heisman contender.
Baltimore Ravens defensive tackle was penalized for roughing the passer.
NFL in passer rating and completion percentage.
Roethlisberger's backup struggles as passer in his first start since 2009.
Defensive tackle Chris Canty was fined $15,750 for roughing the passer as he struck Dallas QB Tony Romo with the crown of his helmet Sunday, according to an NFL spokesperson.
Von Miller, who rushes the passer on the outside, and.
Ben Roethlisberger became the Steelers' all-time leading passer Thursday night, surpassing Hall of Fame quarterback Terry Bradshaw.
The Washington Redskins on Saturday continued to shake up their quarterback position, pulling a surprise move in taking Michigan State passer Kirk Cousins in the fourth round of the NFL draft and releasing veteran John Beck.
If durability, victories and playoff appearances are the necessary attributes, then Flacco -- the leading passer in Baltimore Ravens history -- has few peers.
Alex Smith's lone interception Sunday dropped his NFL passer rating for the game from 103.5 to 85.7.
But Wilson, now seventh in the league in passer rating (95.2), has more than done his part.
Ryan is the NFL's top-rated passer, guiding the Falcons to an unbeaten record and a commanding lead in the NFC South.
Russell Wilson now stands 12th in the NFL passer ratings (90.5).
***

In science:

For a simple game represented by (N, W ), (N, W m ), WVG or MWVG, it is easy to identify the passers and the dictator.
Complexity of comparison of influence of players in simple games
Je tiens aussi à exprimer ma grati tude envers toutes les personnes de l 'ENSIIE qu i m'on t permis de passer ma tro isième année à
The Hidden Subgroup Problem
When km ≥ km−1 + nm the last level consists entirely of dummies and in this case we set km = km−1 + nm . H has passers only in case k1 = 1, when al l players of level 1 are passers.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
This subgame never has dummies and it does not have passers if G did not.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
This subgame does not have passers and it has dummies if and only if G had.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
Proposition 5 Let H∃ (n, k) be the m-level disjunctive hierarchical game with no passers and no dummies.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
Lemma 5 A roughly weighted m-level disjunctive hierarchical game H = H∃ (n, k) without passers and without dummies may have no more than four levels, i.e., m ≤ 4.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
By Proposition 1 H ′ is a subgame of H and has no passers or dummies.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
Due to the results of the previous section our main focus will be on 2-level ones, then 3-level ones, and then showing that the fourth level may not be added unless we allow dummies or passers.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
Theorem 6 Let H = H∃ (n, k) be a two-level disjunctive hierarchical game with no passers and no dummies.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
The first observation that we are going to make is that if a three-level game disjunctive hierarchical does not have passers and dummies, then it is not weighted.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
Proposition 6 Let H = H∃ (n, k) be a 3-level disjunctive hierarchical game without passers and dummies.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
If a ≤ n3, we would have a winning coalition {3a} of zero weight and any player of the first two levels will be a passer.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
We now know that when H = H∃ (n, k) is a 3-level disjunctive hierarchical game without passers and dummies, then the two-level game H ′ = H∃ (n′, k′ ), where n′ = (n1, n2 ) and k′ = (k1, k2 ), is weighted.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
Lemma 9 Suppose that a 3-level disjunctive hierarchical game H = H∃ (n, k) with no passers and no dummies is roughly weighted.
Roughly Weighted Hierarchical Simple Games
***