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A

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n A the blood group whose red cells carry the A antigen
    • n A the 1st letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n a the 1st letter of the Roman alphabet
    • n A the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites "a typical household circuit carries 15 to 50 amps"
    • n A a metric unit of length equal to one ten billionth of a meter (or 0.0001 micron); used to specify wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
    • n A (biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA
    • n A one of the four nucleotides used in building DNA; all four nucleotides have a common phosphate group and a sugar (ribose)
    • n A any of several fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal vision; prevents night blindness or inflammation or dryness of the eyes
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Every three days a human stomach gets a new lining
    • A A barbarous corruption of have, of he, and sometimes of it and of they. "So would I a done""A brushes his hat."
    • A An adjective, commonly called the indefinite article, and signifying one or any, but less emphatically. "At a a word""At a blow"
    • A An expletive, void of sense, to fill up the meter "A merry heart goes all the day,
      Your sad tires in a mile- a ."
    • A In each; to or for each; as, “twenty leagues a day”, “a hundred pounds a year”, “a dollar a yard”, etc.
    • A In process of; in the act of; into; to; -- used with verbal substantives in -ing which begin with a consonant. This is a shortened form of the preposition anwhich was used before the vowel sound); as in a hunting, a building, a begging. "Jacob, when he was a dying""We'll a birding together.""It was a doing.""He burst out a laughing."
    • A In; on; at; by. "A God's name.""Torn a a A Sundays""Wit that men have now a days.""Set them a work."
    • A Of. "The name of John a a day is it ?""It's six a clock."
    • A named ā in the English, and most commonly ä in other languages The first letter of the English and of many other alphabets. The capital A of the alphabets of Middle and Western Europe, as also the small letter (a), besides the forms in Italic, black letter, etc., are all descended from the old Latin A, which was borrowed from the Greek Alpha, of the same form; and this was made from the first letter of the Phœnician alphabet, the equivalent of the Hebrew Aleph, and itself from the Egyptian origin. The Aleph was a consonant letter, with a guttural breath sound that was not an element of Greek articulation; and the Greeks took it to represent their vowel Alpha with the ä sound, the Phœnician alphabet having no vowel symbols.
    • A (Mus) The name of the sixth tone in the model major scale (that in C), or the first tone of the minor scale, which is named after it the scale in A minor. The second string of the violin is tuned to the A in the treble staff. -- A sharp (A♯) is the name of a musical tone intermediate between A and B. -- A flat (A♭) is the name of a tone intermediate between A and G.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: A monkey was once tried and convicted for smoking a cigarette in South Bend, Indiana
    • a The first letter in the English alphabet, as also generally in the other alphabets which, like the English, come ultimately from the Phenician. Our letters are the same as those used by the Romans; the Roman or Latin alphabet is one of several Italian alphabets derived from the Greek; and the Greek alphabet is, with a few adaptations and additions, formed from the Phenician. As to the origin of the Phenician alphabet, opinions are by no means agreed; but the view now most widely current is that put forth and supported a few years ago by the French scholar De Rougé: namely, that the Phenician characters are derived from early Egyptian hieratic characters, or abbreviated forms of written hieroglyphs. Under each letter will be given in this work the Phenician character from which it comes, along with an early form or two of the Greek and Latin derived characters (especially intended to show the change of direction of the letter consequent upon the change of direction of writing, since the Phenician was always written from right to left); and to these will be added the hieratic and hieroglyphic characters from which the Phenician is held to originate, according to De Rougé's theory. It is to be noticed that our ordinary capitals are the original forms of our letters; the lowercase, Italic, and written letters are all derived from the capitals. Our A corresponds to the Phenician letter called aleph; and this name, signifying “ox,” is also the original of the Greek name of the same letter, alpha. The comparative scheme for A is as follows: The Phenician aleph was not a proper vowel-sign, but rather a quasi-consonantal one, to which an initial vowel-sound, of whatever kind, attached itself; since the fundamental plan of that alphabet assumed that every syllable should begin with a consonant. But the Greeks, in adapting the borrowed alphabet to their own use, made the sign represent a single vowel-sound: that, namely, which we usually call the “Italian” or “Continental” a (ä), as heard in far, father. This was its value in the Latin also, and in the various alphabets founded on the Latin, including that of our own ancestors, the speakers and writers of earliest English or Anglo-Saxon; and it is mainly retained to the present time in the languages of continental Europe. In consequence, however, of the gradual and pervading change of utterance of English words, without corresponding change in the mode of writing them, it has come to have in our use a variety of values. The sound of a in far is the purest and most fundamental of vowel-sounds, being that which is naturally sent forth by the human organs of utterance when the mouth and throat are widely opened, and the tone from the larynx suffered to come out with least modifying interference by the parts of the mouth. On the other hand, in the production of the i-sound of machine or pique and the u-sound of rule (or double o of pool), the organs are brought quite nearly together: in the case of i, the flat of the tongue and the roof of the mouth; in the case of u, the rounded lips. Hence these vowels approach a consonantal character, and pass with little or no alteration into y and w respectively. Then e and o (as in they and note) are intermediate respectively between a (ä) and i and a (ä) and u; and the sounds in fat and fall are still less removed in either direction from a (ä). The pure or original sound of a (far) is more prevalent in earlier stages of language, and is constantly being weakened or closened into the other vowel-sounds, which are to a great extent derived from it; and this process has gone on in English on a larger scale than in almost any other known language. Hence the a-sound (as in far) is very rare with us (less than half of one per cent. of our whole utterance, or not a tenth part as frequent as the sound of i in pit or as that of u in but); its short sound has been so generally flattened into that in fat, and its long sound into that in fate, that we now call these sounds respectively “short a” and “long a”; and, on the other hand, it has in many words been broadened or rounded into the sound heard in all and fall. Thus the most usual sounds of English written a are now, in the order of their frequency, those in fat, fate, fall, far; there are also a few cases like the a in what and was (after a w-sound, nearly a corresponding short to the a of all), many (a “short e”), and others yet more sporadic. In syllables of least stress and distinctness, too, as in the first and third syllables of abundant and abundance, it is universally uttered with the “short u” sound of but. The “long a” of fate is not strictly one sound, but ends with a vanishing sound of “long e”: i. e., it is a slide from the e-sound of they down to the i-sound of pique. From this vanish the a of fare and bare and their like is free, while it has also an opener sound, and is even, in the mouths of many speakers, indistinguishable in quality from the “short a” of fat; hence the a-sound of fare is in the respellings of this work written with ã, to distinguish it from the sound in fate. There is also a class of words, like ask, fast, ant, in which some pronounce the vowel simply as “short a,” while some give it the full open sound of a in far, and yet others make it something intermediate between the two: such an a is represented in this work by ȧ. A occurs as final only in a very few proper English words; and it is never doubled in such words.
    • a As a symbol, a denotes the first of an actual or possible series.
    • a In music, the name of the sixth note of the natural diatonic scale of C, or the first note of the relative minor scale; the la of Italian, French, and Spanish musicians. It is the note sounded by the open second string of the violin, and to it as given by a fixed-toned instrument (as the oboe or organ) all the instruments of an orchestra are tuned.
    • a In the mnemonic words of logic, the universal affirmative proposition, as, all men are mortal. Similarly, I stands for the particular affirmative, as, some men are mortal; E for the universal negative, as, no men are mortal; O for the particular negative, as, some men are not mortal. The use of these symbols dates from the thirteenth century; they appear to be arbitrary applications of the vowels a, e, i, o, but are usually supposed to have been taken from the Latin AffIrmo, I affirm, and nEgO, I deny. But some authorities maintain that their use in Greek is much older.
    • a In mathematics: In algebra, a, b, c, etc., the first letters of the alphabet, stand for known quantities, while x, y, z, the last letters, stand for unknown quantities; in geometry, A, B, C, etc., are used to name points, lines, and figures.
    • a In abstract reasoning, suppositions, etc., A, B, C, etc., denote each a particular person or thing in relation to the others of a series or group.
    • a In writing and printing, a, b, c, etc., are used instead of or in addition to the Arabic figures in marking paragraphs or other divisions, or in making references.
    • a In naut. lang., A1, A2, etc., are symbols used in the Record of American and Foreign Shipping, and in Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, to denote the relative rating of merchant vessels. In the former, the character assigned to vessels by the surveyors is expressed by the numbers from 1 to 3, A1 standing for the highest and A3 for the lowest grade. The numbers 1½, 1¾, 2, 2½ express intermediate degrees of seaworthiness. Vessels classed as A1 or A1½ are regarded as fit for the carriage of all kinds of cargoes on all kinds of voyages for a specified term of years; those classed as A1¾ or A2, for all cargoes on Atlantic voyages, and in exceptional cases on long voyages, and for such cargoes as oil, sugar, molasses, etc., on any voyage; those classed as A2½ or A3, for coasting voyages only, with wood or coal. In Lloyd's Register, the letters A, A (in red), Æ, and E are used to denote various degrees of excellence in the hulls of ships, the figure 1 being added to express excellence of equipment, such as masts and rigging in sailing-ships, or boilers and engines in steamers. The broad A in the British Lloyd's indicates a ship built of iron. In the American Register, the annexed figures do not refer to the equipment.— Hence, in commerce, A1 is used to denote the highest mercantile credit; and colloquially A1, or in the United States A No. 1, is an adjective of commendation, like first-class, first-rate: as, an A1 speaker.
    • a As an abbreviation, a stands, according to context, for acre, acting, adjective, answer, are (in the metric system), argent (in heraldry), anal (anal fin, in ichthyology), anechinoplacid (in echinoderms), etc.; in com., for approved, for accepted, and for Latin ad (commonly written @), “at” or “to”: as, 500 shares L. I. preferred @ 67½; 25 @ 30 cents per yard.
    • a Attrib., having the form of the capital A, as a tent.
    • a The form of an used before consonants and words beginning with a consonant-sound: as, a man, a woman, a year, a union, a eulogy, a oneness, a hope. An, however, was formerly often used before the sounds of h and initial long u and eu even in accented syllables (as, an hospital, an union), and is still retained by some before those sounds in unaccented syllables (as, an historian, an united whole, an euphonious sound). The form a first appeared about the beginning of the thirteenth century. It is placed before nouns of the singular number, and also before plural nouns when few or great many is interposed. [Few was originally singular as well as plural, and the article was singular (ME. a) or plural (ME. ane) to agree with it. In the phrase a great many, the article agrees with many, which is properly a noun (AS. menigu: see many, n.); the following plural noun, as in the phrase a great many books, is really a partitive genitive.]
    • a A reduced form of the preposition on, formerly common in all the uses of on, but now restricted to certain constructions in which the preposition is more or less disguised, being usually written as one word with the following noun.
    • a Of place: On, in, upon, unto, into; the preposition and the following noun being usually written as one word, sometimes with, but commonly without, a hyphen, and regarded as an adverb or a predicate adjective, but best treated as a prepositional phrase. Similarly In such phrases a denotes
    • a Of state: On, in, etc.: as, to be alive, to be asleep, to set afire; to be afloat; to set adrift. In this use now applicable to any verb (but chiefly to monosyllables and dissyllables) taken as a noun: as, to be aglow with excitement; to be a-swim; to be all a-tremble.
    • a Of time: On, in, at, by, etc., remaining in some colloquial expressions: as, to stay out a nights (often written o' nights); to go fishing a Sunday; now a days (generally written nowadays). Common with adverbs of repetition: as, twice a day
    • a Of process: In course of, with a verbal noun in -ing, taken passively: as, the house is a building; “while the ark was a preparing”(1 Pet. iii. 20); while these things were a doing. The prepositional use is clearly seen in the alternative construction with in: as, “Forty and six years was this temple in building,” John ii. 20. In modern use the preposition is omitted, and the verbal noun is treated as a present participle taken passively: as, the house is building. But none of these forms of expression has become thoroughly popular, the popular instinct being shown in the recent development of the desired “progressive passive participle”: as, the house is being built, the work is being done, etc. This construction, though condemned by logicians and purists, is well established in popular speech, and will probably pass into correct literary usage.
    • a Of action: In, to, into; with a verbal noun in -ing, taken actively. With be: as, to be a coming; to be a doing; to be a fighting. Now only colloquial or provincial, literary usage omitting the preposition, and treating the verbal noun as a present participle: as, to be coming; to be doing.
    • a A reduced form of of, now generally written o', as in man-o'-war, six o'clock, etc.
    • a A modern provincial corruption of the pronoun I.
    • a An old (and modern provincial) corruption of all genders and both numbers of the third personal pronoun, he, she, it, they. So quotha, that is, quoth he.
    • a An old (and modern provincial) corruption of have as an auxiliary verb, unaccented, and formerly also as a principal verb.
    • a All.
    • a The early form of ah, preserved, archaically, before a leader's or chieftain's name, as a war-cry (but now treated and pronounced as the indefinite article).
    • a A Latin preposition, meaning of, off, away from, etc. It occurs in certain phrases: as, a priori, a posteriori, a mensa et thoro, etc.; also in certain personal names of medieval or modern origin: as, Thomas à Kempis, that is, Thomas of Kempen, the school-name given to Thomas Hammerken, born at Kempen near Düsseldorf; Abraham a Sancta Clara, that is, Abraham of St. Clare, the name assumed by Ulrich Megerle. The true name of Thomas a Becket (written also A' Becket. and, in un-English fashion, à Becket, à Becket) was simply Thomas Becket or Beket; the a appears to be a later insertion, though supported by such late Middle English names as Wydo del Beck't, John de Beckote, William atte Beck, etc., that is, of or at the brook
    • a A prefix or an initial and generally inseparable particle. It is a relic of various Teutonic and classical particles.
    • a An unaccented inseparable prefix of verbs, and of nouns and adjectives thence derived, originally implying motion away, but in earlier English merely intensive, or, as in modern English, without assignable force, as in abide, abode, arise, awake, ago = agone, etc. The difference between abide, arise, awake, etc., and the simple verbs bide, rise, wake, etc., is chiefly syllabic or rhythmic. In a few verbs this prefix has taken in spelling a Latin semblance, as in accurse, affright, allay, for a-curse, a-fright, a-lay.
    • a An apparent prefix, properly a preposition, the same as a, preposition When used before a substantive it forms what is really a prepositional phrase, which is now generally written as one word, with or without a hyphen, and regarded as an adverb or as a predicate adjective: as, to lie abed, to be asleep, to be all a-tremble, etc. With verbal nouns in -ing it forms what is regarded as a present participle, either active, as, they are a-coming (colloq.), or passive, as, the house was a-building. In the latter uses the a is usually, and in all it would be properly, written separately, as a preposition. See a, preposition, where the uses are explained.
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form of Anglo-Saxon of, prep., English off, from, as in adown (which see), or of later English of, as in anew, afresh, akin, etc. (which see).
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form of Anglo-Saxon of-, an intensive prefix, as in athirst, ahungered (which see).
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form of and- (which see), as in along (which see).
    • a A prefix, being one of the reduced forms of the Anglo-Saxon prefix ge- (see i-), as in along, aware, aford, now spelled afford, simulating the Latin prefix af-, among etc. The same prefix is otherwise spelled in enough, iwis, yclept, etc.
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form of at-, mixed with a- for on-, in afore (which see).
    • a A prefix, in ado, originally at do, northern English infinitive, equivalent to English to do. See ado.
    • a A quasi-prefix, a mere opening syllable, in the interjections aha, ahoy. In aha, and as well in ahoy, it may be considered as ah.
    • a A quasi-prefix, a mere opening syllable, in avast, where a-, however, represents historically Dutch houd in the original Dutch expression houd vast = English hold fast.
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form of the Latin prefix ad-. In Old French and Middle English regularly a-, and so properly in modern French and English, as in avouch
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form (in Latin, and so in English, etc.) of the Latin prefix ad- before sc-, sp-, st-, and gn-, as in ascend, aspire, aspect, astringent, agnate, etc.
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form (in Middle English, etc.) of Latin ab-, as in abate (which see). In a few verbs this a- has taken a Latin semblance, as in abs-tain (treated as ab-stain), as-soil. See these words.
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form (in Latin, and so in English, etc.) of the Latin prefix ab-, from, as in avert (which see).
    • a A prefix, being an altered form of e-, reduced form of Latin ex-, as in amend, abash, etc., aforce, afray (now afforce, affray), etc. (which see).
    • a A prefix, being a reduced form of an- for en-, in some words now obsolete or spelled in semblance of the Latin, or restored, as in acloy, acumber, apair, etc., later accloy, accumber, modern encumber, impair, etc.
    • a A quasi-prefix, representing original Latin ah, interj., in alas (which see).
    • a A prefix of Greek origin, called alpha privative, the same as English un-, meaning not, without, -less, used not only in words taken directly or through Latin from the Greek, as abyss, adamant, acatalectic, etc., but also as a naturalized English prefix in new formations, as achromatic, asexual, etc., especially in scientific terms, English or New Latin, as Apteryx, Asiphonata, etc.
    • a A prefix of Greek origin, occurring unfelt in English acolyte, adelphous, etc.
    • a A prefix of Greek origin, occurring unfelt in atlas, amaurosis, etc.
    • a A prefix of Arabic origin, occurring unfelt in apricot, azimuth, hazard (for *azard), etc., commonly in the full form al-. See al-.
    • a A suffix characteristic of feminine nouns and adjectives of Greek or Latin origin or semblance, many of which have been adopted in English without change. Examples are: Greek (first declension — in Latin spelling), idea, coma, basilica, mania, etc.
    • a A suffix, the nominative neuter plural ending of nouns and adjectives of the second and third declensions in Greek or Latin, some of which have been adopted in English without change of ending. ; Examples are: in Greek, phenomena, plural of phenomenon, miasmata, plural of miasma(t-), etc.
    • a An unmeaning syllable, used in old ballads and songs to fill out a line.
    • a In music, the A next above middle C has (at French pitch) 435 vibrations per second. In medieval music, the final of the Æolian and hypoæolian modes.
    • a In chem., the symbol for argon.
    • a Also an abbreviation of ampere and of A-level (which see).
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: A chicken with red earlobes will produce brown eggs, and a chicken with white earlobes will produce white eggs
    • A the first letter in our alphabet, its corresponding symbol standing first also in many other alphabets derived from the Phœnician. It originated in the hieroglyphic picture of an eagle (Old Egyptian ahom), the cursive hieratic form of which was the original of the Phœnician aleph, an ox, from a fancied resemblance to its head and horns.
    • A as a note in music, is the major sixth of the scale of C;
    • A the indefinite article, a broken-down form of An, and used before words beginning with the sound of a consonant.
    • prep A ä or ā, a derived from the old prep. on, and still used, as a prefix, in afoot, afield, apart, asleep, nowadays, twice-a-day; also with verbal nouns, as a-building, to be a-doing, to set a-going. It is now admitted only colloquially.
    • A ä a dialectic corruption of he or she, as in quotha, (Shak.) 'A babbled of green fields.'—A, usually written a', Scotch for all; A, a form of the L. prep. ab, from, of, used before consonants, as in Thomas à Kempis, Thomas à Becket, &c.
    • ***

Quotations

  • Arthur James Balfour
    Arthur James Balfour
    “I thought he was a young man of promise, but it appears he is a young man of promises. [Speaking Of Winston Churchill]”
  • Charles Caleb Colton
    Charles%20Caleb%20Colton
    “To sentence a man of true genius, to the drudgery of a school is to put a racehorse on a treadmill.”
  • Ambrose Bierce
    Ambrose%20Bierce
    “Abstainer. A weak man who yields to the temptation of denying himself a pleasure.”
  • Friedrich Nietzsche
    Friedrich%20Nietzsche
    “The irrationality of a thing is no argument against its existence, rather a condition of it.”
  • Simone De Beauvoir
    Simone%20De%20Beauvoir
    “To make oneself an object, to make oneself passive, is a very different thing from being a passive object.”
  • Adlai E. Stevenson
    Adlai%20E.%20Stevenson
    “Accuracy is to a newspaper what virtue is to a lady, but a newspaper can always print a retraction.”

Idioms

A bit much - If something is excessive or annoying, it is a bit much.
***
A bridge too far - A bridge too far is an act of overreaching- going too far and getting into trouble or failing.
***
A chain is no stronger than its weakest link - This means that processes, organisations, etc, are vulnerable because the weakest person or part can always damage or break them.
***
A day late and a dollar short - (USA) If something is a day late and a dollar short, it is too little, too late.
***
A fool and his money are soon parted - This idiom means that people who aren't careful with their money spend it quickly. 'A fool and his money are easily parted' is an alternative form of the idiom.
***
A fool at 40 is a fool forever - If someone hasn't matured by the time they reach forty, they never will.
***
A fresh pair of eyes - A person who is brought in to examine something carefully is a fresh pair of eyes.
***
A hitch in your giddy-up - If you have a hitch in your giddy-up, you're not feeling well. ('A hitch in your gittie-up' is also used.)
***
A lick and a promise - If you give something a lick and a promise, you do it hurriedly, most often incompletely, intending to return to it later.
***
A light purse is a heavy curse - Life is difficult when you don't have much money.
***
A List - Prominent and influential people who comprise the most desirable guests at a social function or gathering.
***
A little bird told me - If someone doesn't want to say where they got some information from, they can say that a little bird told them.
***
A little learning is a dangerous thing - A small amount of knowledge can cause people to think they are more expert than they really are.eg. he said he'd done a course on home electrics, but when he tried to mend my table lamp, he fused all the lights! I think a little learning is a dangerous thing
***
A long row to hoe - Something that is a long row to hoe is a difficult task that takes a long time.
***
A lost ball in the high weeds - A lost ball in the high weeds is someone who does not know what they are doing, where they are or how to do something.
***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Abbreviated form of an,AS. on,). See On

Usage

In literature:

Under a maple tree in the park sat a young girl in a white dress reading a book.
"The Goose Man" by Jacob Wassermann
As a struggling cotton manufacturer he was a nobody, but as a young Member of Parliament he would have a position.
"The Day of Judgment" by Joseph Hocking
Once upon a time there was a teeny-tiny woman lived in a teeny-tiny house in a teeny-tiny village.
"Children's Literature" by Charles Madison Curry
As a poet he might have been a great man, but as a Deemster he must have been a mockery, a hypocrite, an impostor, and a sham.
"The Manxman A Novel - 1895" by Hall Caine
It was a tree not over thirty or forty feet high, with a trunk of less than a foot in thickness, and of a brownish colour.
"Popular Adventure Tales" by Mayne Reid
Any but so extraordinary an observer would have described a steamer in a storm as he would have described a sailing-ship in a storm.
"The Life of Charles Dickens, Vol. I-III, Complete" by John Forster
A kind of gun on a stock, like that of a musket, but mounted as a swivel, carrying a ball from half a pound to two pounds weight.
"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth
A stack had been stripped by a recent storm, and he thatched it afresh with the help of a laborer and a boy.
"A Son of Hagar" by Sir Hall Caine
A penny hain'd's a penny clear, and a preen a-day's a groat a-year.
"The Proverbs of Scotland" by Alexander Hislop
It was broken by a new sound, a soft sound between a whisper and a hum.
"The Huntress" by Hulbert Footner
The selling price was twenty-five cents, a watermelon, a slice of pie, or a jack-knife with a broken blade.
"The Fighting Edge" by William MacLeod Raine
As a compromise a representative from Delaware suggested a division of the Western Territory between the free and slave States.
"A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year" by Edwin Emerson
In a nursery where a number of toys lay scattered about, a money-box stood on the top of a very high wardrobe.
"Fairy Tales of Hans Christian Andersen" by Hans Christian Andersen
A crowd of wits and poets, who would easily have vanquished him as a competitor, revered him as a judge and a patron.
"Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3)" by Thomas Babington Macaulay
You have not thought that I am not a stone or a block, but a man, with a man's heart within me.
"The Cryptogram" by James De Mille
It is suggested in succession to a young student that he is a sly and crafty peasant, then a miser, and finally a very old man.
"Introduction to the Science of Sociology" by Robert E. Park
A Monaldeschi kills a Filippeschi, so a Filippeschi kills a Monaldeschi.
"The Saracen: Land of the Infidel" by Robert Shea
With a quill Simon was writing out a document, while Lorenzo used a candle flame to melt sealing wax in a small brass pitcher on a tripod.
"The Saracen: The Holy War" by Robert Shea
They bought a wedding-ring for a shilling, from a shop in a poor quarter.
"The Rainbow" by D. H. (David Herbert) Lawrence
A thousand a-year is a great deal for a mother to give away, to make over for ever; but Mrs. Ferrars has a noble spirit.
"The Complete Project Gutenberg Works of Jane Austen" by Jane Austen
***

In poetry:

A weddin', a woo,
A clog an' a shoe,
A pot full o' porridge; away we go!
A Yorkshire Wedding-Rhyme.
"The Bride's Homecoming" by F W Moorman
Does he wear a turban, a fez, or a hat?
Does he sleep on a mattress, a bed, or a mat,
or COT,
The Akond of Swat?
"The Akond of Swat" by Edward Lear
An old, short story is this!
A glance, a trembling, a sigh,
A gaze in the eyes, a kiss—
Why will it not go by!
"Winter Song" by George MacDonald
A little gain, a little pain,
A laugh, lest you may moan;
A little blame, a little fame,
A star-gleam on a stone.
"Just Think!" by Robert W Service
For, Life, thou art become a ghost,
A memory of days gone by,
A poor forsaken thing between
A heartache and a sigh.
"The Faithless Lover" by Bliss William Carman
And each of us will sigh, and start
A-talking of a faded year,
And lay a hand above a heart,
And dry a pretty tear.
"The Dramatists" by Dorothy Parker

In news:

The software that controls Olly can be tuned to emit a puff of perfume for a few different types of online interaction such as a retweet, posting a comment, a mention by name or a specific text search.
Remember back when you were a kid, and you thought it would be so cool to have a basement where you could set up a pool table, a dart board, an air hockey game, a pinball machine and a jukebox.
But keep in mind, a sack is a tackle for a loss and a quarterback hit, so a defender who gets to the quarterback gets a three for one.
Come to think of it, a sled race and a bidding war have a lot in common: a steady climb, a wild ride, and a long, slowing finish.
A Hoboken couple returning from a late-night run to a food store on Saturday were robbed in front of a Jackson Street building by a man wielding a sawed-off shotgun, according to police.
Chappell, shown dressed for a high school prom in a family photo, is a schizophrenic with a criminal record who had been shuttled from one group home to another after a fight with a fellow resident.
A California Highway Patrol officer who pulled over a pickup truck for a traffic violation Wednesday instead stumbled upon a dead body lying inside a sleeping bag in the bed of the truck, a San Joaquin County Sheriff's deputy said.
A young man wearing a pearly white shirt, blue tie and somewhat frayed sports jacket sits at a table in a fast-food restaurant sipping a frappe, munching absentmindedly on fries and reading a newspaper someone else left behind.
PLANNING a big event — a wedding, a bar mitzvah, a 50th anniversary — can be a little like having a serious ailment.
A city logo would seem to be a simple thing: A decal on the side of a police car, a giant symbol on a water tower, an emblem on uniforms and stationery.
A tingling for a team that fell just short of.500 a season ago, a young team with a lot of injuries — that's a weird tingling .
About a month and a half before Twin Sister packs its dreamy indie-pop into a van and treks across the United States for a 22-city tour, the Long Island quintet figured a stop at midtown Miami's Bardot would be a fitting warmup.
A patched and battle-ready USS Cole returned to duty with a flag-waving, horn-blasting send-off Friday, a year and a half after a terrorist bombing in Yemen blew a hole in its side and killed 17 sailors.
A lot of severed body parts hit the floor during the grisly course of Takashi Miike's Japanese splatter comedy "Ichi the Killer," including a nose, a cheek, a tongue, several heads and a face, sliced off as if it were a mask.
In a bit of encouraging news out of a nation that has produced few of them, a broad spectrum of Pakistan has become enraged by a Taliban attempt to murder a 14-year-old schoolgirl as she rode a school bus home.
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In science:

Since a stratum A=t has (for general reasons) the typical fibre B(A)\ G and structure group B(A)\ N (B(A)) (for some A ∈ A=t), the stabilizer B(A) has to be a normal subgroup in G . (Here, N (B(A)) denotes the normalizer of B(A) w.r.t. G .) We will show that this is the case in the generic stratum only.
On the Gribov Problem for Generalized Connections
Now, let A → M be a vector bundle over a manifold M and suppose that [[, ]] : Γ(A) × Γ(A) → Γ(A) is a bracket on the space Γ(A), that ρ : Γ(A) → X(M ) is a homomorphism of C ∞ (M, R)-modules and that φ0 is a section of the dual bundle A∗ .
Generalized Lie bialgebroids and Jacobi structures
Then, (i) F a (A) is left-continuous and its jumps are rational, i.e., F a− (A) = F a (A) if a is rational and F a− (A) = F a+ (A) if a is not rational.
Ramification of local fields with imperfect residue fields
But H− (a) ≥ W− (a) + a ≥ W+ (a) + a, and hence M+(a) < H− (a) is equivalent to M+(a) ∨ (W+ (a) + a) < H− (a), i.e. H+ (a) < H− (a).
Aging properties of Sinai's model of random walk in random environment
Definition. A tame invariant is one defined as min{|A| : A ⊂ R, φ(A)∧ψ (A)} where φ(A) is a statement whose quatifiers range over the set A and the natural numbers, and ψ (A) is a statement of the form ∀x ∈ R ∃y ∈ A θ(x, y ) where θ is a pro jective formula. A real parameter is allowed in both formulas φ and ψ .
Countable Support Iteration Revisited
In the case of a differential algebra (A, ∂, µ), which by Example 2.5. can be seen as an A∞ -algebra, the above A∞ -bialgebra structure on A is exactly the bialgebra structure given by left- and right-multiplication, because then b1,0(a⊗b) = m2 (a ⊗ b) = a · b and b0,1(a ⊗ b) = m2 (a ⊗ b) = a · b, for a, b ∈ A.
Infinity-Inner-Products on A-Infinity-Algebras
Similar the A∞ -bialgebra structure on A∗ is given by right- and left-multiplication in the arguments: b1,0 (a ⊗ b∗ )(c) = b∗ (m2 (c ⊗ a)) = b∗(c · a) and b0,1(a∗ ⊗ b)(c) = a∗ (m2 (b ⊗ c)) = a∗ (b · c), for a, b, c ∈ A, and a∗, b∗ ∈ A∗ .
Infinity-Inner-Products on A-Infinity-Algebras
Let L : A −→ A and S : A −→ A be two endomorphism of A and let B = E = A and r : B −→ A ⊕ A s : E −→ A ⊕ A be relations where r(a) = (a, L(a)) and s(a) = (a, S (a) ˙).
The categorical theory of relations and quantizations
Given a map ϕ : A → B, let us denote by fib-π0 (A; B ) the quotient A/∼, where a ∼ a′ if ϕ(a) = ϕ(a′ ) and if a and a′ lie in the same connected component of ϕ−1 (ϕ(a)).
Orbispaces and Orbifolds from the Point of View of the Borel Construction, a new Definition
If [k b, c k] < [k a, a k], then k b, c k≤∗k a, a k, but not k a, a k≤∗k b, c k, contradicting Fact 2.3, (10). (d2) d(a, b) = d(a, a) iff k a, b k≤∗k a, a k iff a = b by Fact 2.3, (10) and (11). (d3) [k a, b k] ≤ [k b, a k] is trivial.
Distance Semantics for Belief Revision
Coordinate change”.) These structures are related by the identities b +a′ c = ((b −a a′ ) +a (c −a a′ )) +a a′, ra′ b = ra (b −a a′ ) +a a′, ϕa′ (x) = ϕa (x) +a (1 − ∂ x)a a′ .
Linear extensions and nilpotence for Maltsev theories
Proof : The operation C may be defined in a way first proposed in the Theorem 14 of : b ∈ C (A) iff there exists some formula a such that A |= a (|= is logical implication of propositional calculus) enjoying the following property: for any a′ such that A |= a′ and a′ |= a, one has a′ ∼b.
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
If A is a set of propositions, and each a ∈ A is associated with some closed subspace a∗, we may associate the proposition Va∈A a with the closed subspace Ta∈A a∗, i.e., A∗ and the rule ∧-R is validated: C (A, B ) = C (V a, B ).
Connectives in Quantum and other Cumulative Logics
Informally, it states that for a set A ⊆ G with A = A−1, either a random (u, v) ∈ A × A satisfies uv /∈ A with at least some positive probability, or else A is close to a subgroup A′ with A′A′ a subgroup of G.
Towards a practical, theoretically sound algorithm for random generation in finite groups
S = −(a+ a′− − a−a′+ )[∇+, ∇− ]S − 2(a+a′− − a− a′+ )F S = (a ∧ a′ )F S − 2(a ∧ a′ )F S = iΛ(a, a′ )S.
Generalized Noncommutative Supersymmetry from a New Gauge Symmetry
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